Home / Regular Issue / JTAS Vol. 45 (3) Aug. 2022 / JTAS-2417-2021


Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) on Rice Irrigation

Nur Hidayu Abu Hassan, Wan Fazilah Fazlil Ilahi, Nik Norasma Che’Ya, Mohd Razi Ismail, Zulkarami Berahim, Nurul Idayu Zakaria and Mohamad Husni Omar

Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, Volume 45, Issue 3, August 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjtas.45.3.07

Keywords: Continuous flooding, grain yield performance, growth performance, intermittent flooding, paddy cultivation, saving-water irrigation

Published on: 8 August 2022

In Malaysia, numerous methods have been subsequently established subjected to water-saving irrigation aiming to improve the common conventional irrigation system. However, among the most preferred water-saving method, alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation adoption are presently in paddy cultivation yet has very limited information, especially locally. Hence, this study intended to propose two treatments, namely continuously flooded (control) and AWD irrigation, to investigate the feasibility of AWD implementation. The experiment was conducted at the paddy field of Padang Raja Kelantan, Malaysia. From the result, the agronomic performance was evaluated by several attributes under the growth performance evaluation, grain yield performance evaluation, and chlorophyll measurement. Statistical analysis was performed on the obtained data, and both growth, yield performances, and chlorophyll content resulted in no significant difference at p < 0.05, a 95% confidence level.

  • Akter, M., Deroo, H., Kamal, A. M., Kader, M. A., Verhoeven, E., Decock, C., Boeckx, P., & Sleutel, S. (2018). Impact of irrigation management on paddy soil N supply and depth distribution of abiotic drivers. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 261, 12-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2018.03.015

  • Asa, G., Mohd, A., Anuar, A., & Aimrun, W. (2011). Using soil plant analysis development chlorophyll meter for two growth stages to assess grain yield of Malaysian rice (Oryza sativa). American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, 6(2), 209-213. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajabssp.2011.209.213

  • Aziz, O., Hussain, S., Rizwan, M., Riaz, M., Bashir, S., Lin, L. R., Mehmood, S., Imran, M., Yaseen, R., Lu, G. A. (2018). Increasing water productivity, nitrogen economy, and grain yield of rice by water saving irrigation and fertilizer-N management. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(17), 16601–16615. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1855-z

  • Biswas, A., Mailapalli, D. R., & Raghuwanshi, N. S. (2021). APSIM-Oryza model for simulating paddy consumptive water footprints under alternate wetting and drying practice for Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. Paddy and Water Environment, 19(3), 481-498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10333-021-00849-4

  • Busari, T. I., Senzanje, A., Odindo, A. O., & Buckley, C. A. (2019). Irrigation management techniques with anaerobic baffled reactor effluent: effect on rice growth, yield and water productivity. Water Practice and Technology, 14(1), 88-100. https://doi.org/10.2166/wpt.2019.002

  • Carrijo, D. R., Akbar, N., Reis, A. F., Li, C., Gaudin, A. C., Parikh, S. J., & Linquist, B. A. (2018). Impacts of variable soil drying in alternate wetting and drying rice systems on yields, grain arsenic concentration and soil moisture dynamics. Field Crops Research, 222, 101-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2018.02.026

  • Carrijo, D. R., Lundy, M. E., & Linquist, B. A. (2017). Rice yields and water use under alternate wetting and drying irrigation: A meta-analysis. Field Crops Research, 203, 173-180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2016.12.002

  • Chidthaisong, A., Cha-un, N., Rossopa, B., Buddaboon, C., Kunuthai, C., Sriphirom, P., Towprayoon, S., Tokida, T., Padre, A. T., & Minamikawa, K. (2018). Evaluating the effects of alternate wetting and drying (AWD) on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a paddy field in Thailand. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 64(1), 31-38. https://doi.org/10.1080/00380768.2017.1399044

  • Dong, N. M., Brandt, K. K., Sørensen, J., Hung, N. N., Van Hach, C., Tan, P. S., & Dalsgaard, T. (2012). Effects of alternating wetting and drying versus continuous flooding on fertilizer nitrogen fate in rice fields in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 47, 166-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.12.028

  • Fonteh, M. F., Tabi, F. O., Wariba, A. M., & Zie, J. (2013). Effective water management practices in irrigated rice to ensure food security and mitigate climate change in a tropical climate. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 4(3), 284-290. https://doi.org/10.5251/abjna.2013.

  • Ilahi, W. F., Hassan, N. H., Ismail, M. R., Che’Ya, N. N., Berahim, Z., Omar, M. H., Zakaria, N. I., & Zawawi, M. A. M. (2021). Potential groundwater exploration in use of 2-D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) techniques at the Department of Agriculture Kelantan Research and Developmental Platform Padang Raja Kelantan. Pertanika Journal of Science and Technology, 29(2), 1219-1228. https://doi.org/10.47836/pjst.29.2.28

  • Ishfaq, M., Akbar, N., Anjum, S. A., & Anwar-Ijl-Haq, M. (2020). Growth, yield and water productivity of dry direct seeded rice and transplanted aromatic rice under different irrigation management regimes. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 19(11), 2656-2673. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2095-3119(19)62876-5

  • Karki, S., Poudel, N. S., Bhusal, G., Simkhada, S., Regmi, B. R., Adhikari, B., & Poudel, S. (2018). Growth parameter and yield attributes of rice (Oryza sativa) as influenced by different combination of nitrogen sources. World Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(2), 58-64.

  • Liu, L., Chen, T., Wang, Z., Zhang, H., Yang, J., & Zhang, J. (2013). Combination of site-specific nitrogen management and alternate wetting and drying irrigation increases grain yield and nitrogen and water use efficiency in super rice. Field Crops Research, 154, 226–235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2013.08.016

  • Norton, G. J., Shafaei, M., Travis, A. J., Deacon, C. M., Danku, J., Pond, D., Cochrane, N., Lockhart, K., Salt, D., Zhang, H., Dodd, I. C., Hossain, M., Islam, M. R., & Price, A. H. (2017). Impact of alternate wetting and drying on rice physiology, grain production, and grain quality. Field Crops Research, 205, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2017.01.016

  • Oliver, M. M. H., Talukder, M. S. U., & Ahmed, M. (2010). Alternate wetting and drying irrigation for rice cultivation. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University, 6(2), 409-414. https://doi.org/10.3329/jbau.v6i2.4841

  • Pascual, V. J., & Wang, Y. M. (2017). Utilizing rainfall and alternate wetting and drying irrigation for high water productivity in irrigated lowland paddy rice in southern Taiwan. Plant Production Science, 20(1), 24-35. https://doi.org/10.1080/1343943x.2016.1242373

  • Sarkar, S. (2001). Effect of water stress on growth, productivity and water expense efficiency of summer rice. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 71(3), 153-158.

  • Setyanto, P., Pramono, A., Adriany, T. A., Susilawati, H. L., Tokida, T., Padre, A. T., & Minamikawa, K. (2018). Alternate wetting and drying reduces methane emission from a rice paddy in Central Java, Indonesia without yield loss. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 64(1), 23-30. https://doi.org/10.1080/00380768.2017.1409600

  • Sriphirom, P., Chidthaisong, A., & Towprayoon, S. (2018). Rice cultivation to cope with drought situation by alternate wet and dry (AWD) water management system: Case study of Ratchaburi province, Thailand. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 63, 139-144. https://doi.org/10.3303/CET1863024

  • Sriphirom, P., Chidthaisong, A., & Towprayoon, S. (2019). Effect of alternate wetting and drying water management on rice cultivation with low emissions and low water used during wet and dry season. Journal of Cleaner Production, 223, 980-988. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.03.212

  • Thakur, A. K., Mandal, K. G., Mohanty, R. K., & Ambast, S. K. (2018). Rice root growth, photosynthesis, yield and water productivity improvements through modifying cultivation practices and water management. Agricultural Water Management, 206, 67-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2018.04.027

  • Yao, F., Huang, J., Cui, K., Nie, L., Xiang, J., Liu, X., Wu, W., Chen, M., & Peng, S. (2012). Agronomic performance of high-yielding rice variety grown under alternate wetting and drying irrigation. Field Crops Research, 126, 16–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2011.09.018

  • Yao, L., Zhao, M., & Xu, T. (2017). China’s water-saving irrigation management system: Policy, implementation, and challenge. Sustainability, 9(12), 2339. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122339

  • Zhang, W., Yu, J., Xu, Y., Wang, Z., Liu, L., Zhang, H., Gu, J., Zhang, J., & Yang, J. (2021). Alternate wetting and drying irrigation combined with the proportion of polymer-coated urea and conventional urea rates increases grain yield, water and nitrogen use efficiencies in rice. Field Crops Research, 268, 10816. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2021.108165

  • Zhuang, Y., Zhang, L., Li, S., Liu, H., Zhai, L., Zhou, F., Ye, Y., Ruan, S., & Wen, W. (2019). Effects and potential of water-saving irrigation for rice production in China. Agricultural Water Management, 217, 374-382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2019.03.010

ISSN 0128-7702

e-ISSN 2231-8534

Article ID


Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Recent Articles