Home / Regular Issue / JSSH Vol. 30 (3) Sep. 2022 / JSSH-8399-2021


The Influence of Social Media on University Students’ Self-Esteem

Nurshahira Asyikin Zainuddin, Venusha Ravichandran, Rosshairy Abd. Rahman and Zahayu Md Yusof

Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, Volume 30, Issue 3, September 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjssh.30.3.06

Keywords: Self-esteem, social media, social networking sites, university students, youth

Published on: 6 September 2022

This study assessed the influence of social media on self-esteem among university students. Social media factors that affected the self-esteem of university students were ,investigated based on daily time spent on social media. Data were collected from an online questionnaire. Self-esteem was measured using the established Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The quota sampling technique was deployed to select 381 undergraduate university students for this study. Descriptive analysis was performed to analyze the respondents’ demographic details, including gender, race, and age. Correlation and regression analyses were executed using SPSS software to test the correlations between social media factors and self-esteem among undergraduate students. As a result, self-esteem among the students was not significantly influenced by the amount of time they spent on social media. Therefore, more studies are in need to further investigate the main factors that influence the self-esteem of university students.

  • Al-Ghafri, R. K., & Al-Badi, A. H. (2016). Users’ activities on social media as indicators of self-esteem: A case study in Oman. Journal of Internet Social Networking & Virtual Communities, 1, 1-12.

  • Andreassen, C. S., Pallesen, S., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem: Findings from a large national survey. Addictive Behaviors, 64, 287-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.03.006

  • Barker, V. (2009). Older adolescents’ motivations for social network site use: The influence of gender, group identity, and collective self-esteem. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 2(2), 209-213.

  • Bergagna, E., & Tartaglia, S. (2018). Self-esteem, social comparison, and Facebook use. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 14(4), 831-845. https://doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v14i4.1592

  • Burnasheva, R., & Suh, Y. G. (2020). The influence of social media usage, self-image congruity and self-esteem on conspicuous online consumption among millennials. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 33(5), 1255-1269. https://doi.org/10.1108/APJML-03-2020-0180

  • Chen, W., & Lee, K. H. (2013). Sharing, liking, commenting, and distressed? The pathway between Facebook interaction and psychological distress. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16(10), 728-734. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0272

  • Global Web Index. (2017). GlobalWebIndex’s quarterly report on the latest trends in social networking. https://insight.gwi.com/hubfs/Reports/Social-Q1-2017/GWI-Social-Summary-Q1-2017.pdf?t=1503491556633

  • Jan, M., Soomro, S., & Ahmad, N. (2017). Impact of social media on self-esteem. European Scientific Journal, 13(23), 329-341. http://dx.doi.org/10.19044/esj.2017.v13n23p329

  • Köse, Ö. B., & Doğan, A. (2019). The relationship between social media addiction and self-esteem among Turkish university students. ADDICTA: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 6, 175-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.15805/addicta.2019.6.1.0036

  • Mehdizadeh, S. (2010). Self-presentation 2.0: Narcissism and self esteem on Facebook. Cyber Psychology Behavior, & Social Networking, 13(4), 357-364.

  • Meier, A., & Schäfer, S. (2018). The positive side of social comparison on social network sites: How envy can drive inspiration on Instagram. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 21(7), 411-417. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2017.0708

  • Moon, J. H., Lee, E., Lee, J.-A., Choi, T. R., & Sung, Y. (2016). The role of narcissism in self-promotion on Instagram. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 22-25.

  • Rosenberg, M. (2015). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton University Press. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400876136

  • Sheldon, P., & Bryant, K. (2016). Instagram: Motives for its use and relationship to narcissism and contextual age. Computers in Human Behavior, 58, 89-97.

  • Valkenburg, P., Beyens, I., Pouwels, J. L., van Driel, I. I., & Keijsers, L. (2021). Social media use and adolescents’ self-esteem: Heading for a person specific media effects paradigm. Journal of Communication, 71(1), 56-78. https://doi.org/10.1093/joc/jqaa039

  • WeAreSocial. (2020). More than half of the people on earth now use social media. https://wearesocial.com/uk/blog/2020/07/more-than-half-of-the-people-on-earth-now-use-social-media/

  • Woods, H. C., & Scott, H. (2016). #Sleepyteens: Social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem. Journal of Adolescence, 51, 41-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.05.008

ISSN 0128-7702

e-ISSN 2231-8534

Article ID


Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Recent Articles