Home / Pre-Press / JST-2528-2021

 

Effects of Noise Pollution from Electric Backup Generators on the Operators’ Health

Mahmmoud Ismail Mohammed and Muwafaq Ayesh Rabeea

Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, Pre-Press

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjst.29.4.24

Published: 2021-10-08

Noise is a harmful pollutant that leads to an unsanitary environment in urban areas. Electric backup generators, widely used in developing countries, have been one of the most common noise sources. This study identifies workers’ public health in public electrical backup generators in Mosul City, Iraq. Workers’ health was assessed by measuring blood parameters, including Hb, RBCs, WBCs, PLT, and PCV. In addition, other biochemical parameters have been tested, such as; TP, ALB, F.B.S, Bilirubin, Blood Urea, and Cholesterol. General Urine Examination (GUE) was implemented for all samples. The results show a significant change in the blood samples studied compared to the control sample. Hb increased to 15.72±0.9 and 16.12±0.74 g/dl, at noise levels 92.5 and 94.8 dB, respectively, compared to the control group (14.07±0.20 g/dl). RBCs and PLT increased with the high noise level, whereas TP shows a decrease of about 6.43±0.46 and 6.75±0.14 g/dl at 92.5 and 94.8 dB, respectively, compared to the control group. Similarly, F.B.S, blood urea, and total cholesterol were increasing compared to the control group. Depending on the results obtained, up to 30% of the workers tested have severe hearing troubles. This percentage was classified as acute Hypacusis (57%), severe Hypacusis (40%), and complete deafness (3%). Therefore, public electrical backup generators, which were randomly distributed in the public areas of developing countries, are a source of noise pollution.

  • Adimalla, N., Qian, H., Nandan, M. J., & Hursthouse, A. S. (2020). Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) pollution in surface soils in a typical urban region of south India: An application of health risk assessment and distribution pattern. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 203(126), Article 111055. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111055

  • Allouche, L., Hamadouche, M., Touabti, A., & Khennouf, S. (2011). Effect of long-term exposure to low or moderate lead concentrations on growth , lipid profile and liver function in albino rats. Advances in Biological Research, 5(6), 339-347.

  • Amoatey, P., Omidvarbona, H., Baawain, M. S., Al-Mayahi, A., Al-Mamun, A., & Al-Harthy, I. (2020). Exposure assessment to road traffic noise levels and health effects in an arid urban area. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(28), 35051-35064. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09785-y

  • Anetor, J. I., Yaqub, S. A., Anetor, G. O., Nsonwu, A. C., Adeniyi, F. A. A., & Fukushima, S. (2009). Mixed chemical-induced oxidative stress in occupational exposure in Nigerians. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(5), 821-826. https://doi.org/10.4314/ajb.v8i5.59972

  • Arjunan, A., & Rajan, R. (2020). Noise and brain. Physiology and Behavior, 227(July), Article 113136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113136

  • Arneson, W. L., & Brickell, J. M. (2007). Clinical Chemistry: A laboratory perspective. F.A. Davis Company.

  • Ashmore, M. R., & Dimitroulopoulou, C. (2009). Personal exposure of children to air pollution. Atmospheric Environment, 43(1), 128-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.09.024

  • Asker, A. S., Tawfeeq, A. A., Alhamdani, H. A. A. A., & Alhamdani, A. A. (2021). Effect of addition of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and vitamin E on level of cortisol, ADA enzyme and liver enzymes in Awassi ewes. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 761(1), Article 012087. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/761/1/012087

  • Brink, M., Schäffer, B., Vienneau, D., Foraster, M., Pieren, R., Eze, I. C., Cajochen, C., Probst-Hensch, N., Röösli, M., & Wunderli, J. M. (2019). A survey on exposure-response relationships for road, rail, and aircraft noise annoyance: Differences between continuous and intermittent noise. Environment International, 125(February), 277-290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.043

  • Brook, R. D., & Rajagopalan, S. (2009). Particulate matter, air pollution, and blood pressure. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, 3(5), 332-350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jash.2009.08.005

  • Brunze, N. A. (2016). Fundamentals of urine and body fluid analysis-e-book (4th Ed.). Elsevier.

  • Cuesta, M., & Cobo, P. (2000). Active control of the exhaust noise radiated by an enclosed generator. Applied Acoustics, 61(1), 83-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-682X(99)00062-6

  • Dongre, N. N., Suryakar, A. N., Patil, A. J., Ambekar, J. G., & Rathi, D. B. (2011). Biochemical effects of lead exposure on systolic & diastolic blood pressure, heme biosynthesis and hematological parameters in automobile workers of North Karnataka (India). Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 26(4), 400-406. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12291-011-0159-6

  • Dzhambov, A. M., & Dimitrova, D. D. (2016). Exposure-response relationship between traffic noise and the risk of stroke : A systematic review with meta-analysis. Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 67(2), 136-151.

  • Dzhambov, A. M., & Dimitrova, D. D. (2017). Crossmark. Environmental Research, 152(August 2016), 244-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.10.024

  • Dzhambov, A. M., Dimitrova, D. D., & Mihaylova-alakidi, V. K. (2016). Public health: Burden of sleep disturbance due to traffic noise in Bulgaria. Folia Medica, 57(3/4), 264-269. https://doi.org/10.1515/folmed-2015-0049

  • Eduardo, P., Fiedler, K., Henrique, P., & Zannin, T. (2015). Evaluation of noise pollution in urban traf fi c hubs - Noise maps and measurements. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 51, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2014.09.014

  • Esch, T., Stefano, G. B., Fricchione, G. L., & Benson, H. (2002). Stress in cardiovascular diseases. Medical Science Monitor, 8(5), RA93-RA101.

  • Evandt, J., Oftedal, B., Krog, N. H., Skurtveit, S., Nafstad, P., Schwarze, P. E., Skovlund, E., Houthuijs, D., & Aasvang, G. M. (2017). Road traffic noise and registry based use of sleep medication. Environmental Health, 16(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-017-0330-5

  • Farong, Y., Xin, Y., Zuoping, L., Xiuzhen, L., Mingren, X., & Denglou, L. (2018). Effects of noise pollution on functions of the liver and kidney of rats. Meteorological and Environmental Research, 9(4), 41-43. https://doi.org/10.19547/j.issn2152-3940.2018.04.010

  • Flies, E. J., Mavoa, S., Zosky, G. R., Mantzioris, E., Williams, C., Eri, R., Brook, B. W., & Buettel, J. C. (2019). Urban-associated diseases: Candidate diseases, environmental risk factors, and a path forward. Environment International, 133(October), Article 105187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.105187

  • Gori, T., Babisch, W., Basner, M., & Mu, T. (2014). Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure. European Heart Journal, 35(13), 829-836. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehu030

  • Hussien, B. M., Rabeea, M. A., & Farhan, M. M. (2020). Characterization and behavior of hydrogen sulfide plumes released from active sulfide-tar springs, Hit-Iraq. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 11(5), 894-902. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2020.02.001

  • Ibhadode, O., Tenebe, I. T., Emenike, P. C., Adesina, O. S., Okougha, A. F., & Aitanke, F. O. (2018). Assessment of noise-levels of generator-sets in seven cities of South-Southern Nigeria. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 10(2), 125-135. https://doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2017.1400711

  • Jadaan, K. S., Msallam, M., & Abu-Shanab, D. A. (2016). The impact of road traffic noise on hospital workers. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i1/79259

  • Le, F., & Hattingh, J. (1983). Comparative haematology of some South African birds. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Physiology, 74(2), 443-448. https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9629(83)90628-X

  • Maschke, C., Harder, J., Ising, H., Hecht, K., & Thierfelder, W. (2002). Stress hormone changes in persons exposed to simulated night noise. Noise Health, 5(17), 35-45. https://doi.org/https://www.noiseandhealth.org/text.asp?2002/5/17/35/31836

  • Mohammed, M. I., Yousif, S. W., & Rabeea, M. A. (2020). Physiological and biochemical changes analysis to labors blood samples in plastics recycling factory in Mosul-Iraq. Journal of Global Pharma Technology, 10(06), 281-288.

  • Oguntunde, P. E., Okagbue, H. I., Oguntunde, O. A., & Odetunmibi, O. O. (2019). A study of noise pollution measurements and possible effects on public health in Ota Metropolis , Nigeria. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 7(8), 1391-1395. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.234

  • Oiamo, T. H., Luginaah, I. N., & Baxter, J. (2015). Cumulative effects of noise and odour annoyances on environmental and health related quality of life. Social Science & Medicine, 146, 191-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.10.043

  • Parvathi, K., & Navaneetha Gopalakrishnan, A. (2003, December 15-17). Studies on control of noise from portable power generator. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Environment and Health, Chennai, India (pp. 328-338). Chennai, India.

  • Paull, N., Krix, D., Torpy, F., & Irga, P. (2020). Can Green Walls Reduce Outdoor Ambient Particulate Matter , Noise Pollution and Temperature? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(14), Article 5084. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145084

  • Richmond, W. (1973). Preparation and properties of a cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. and its application to the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum. Clinical Chemistry, 19(12), 1350-1356. https://doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/19.12.1350

  • Roswall, N., Raaschou-nielsen, O., Solvang, S., & Tjønneland, A. (2018). Long-term exposure to residential railway and road tra ffi c noise and risk for diabetes in a Danish cohort. Environmental Research, 160(August 2017), 292-297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.10.008

  • Sohrabi, S., & Khreis, H. (2020). Burden of disease from transportation noise and motor vehicle crashes: Analysis of data from Houston, Texas. Environment International, 136(February), Article 105520. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105520

  • Sygna, K., Marit, G., Aamodt, G., Oftedal, B., & Hjertager, N. (2014). Road traffic noise, sleep and mental health. Environmental Research, 131, 17-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2014.02.010

  • van Kempen, E., Casas, M., Pershagen, G., & Foraster, M. (2018). WHO environmental noise guidelines for the European region: A systematic review on environmental noise and cardiovascular and metabolic effects : A summary. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health,15(2), Article 379. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020379

  • Vladimir, M., & Madalina, C. (2019). Optimizing urban landscapes in regard to noise pollution. Procedia Manufacturing, 32, 161-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2019.02.197

  • WHO. (2011). Burden of disease from environmental noise. World Health Organization.

  • Xiao, J., Li, X., & Zhang, Z. (2016). Daly-based health risk assessment of construction noise in Beijing, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(11), Article 1045. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13111045

  • Yeatts, K., Svendsen, E., Creason, J., Alexis, N., Herbst, M., Scott, J., Kupper, L., Williams, R., Neas, L., Cascio, W., Devlin, R. B., & Peden, D. B. (2007). Coarse particulate matter (PM2.5-10) affects heart rate variability, blood lipids, and circulating eosinophils in adults with asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(5), 709-714. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.9499

ISSN 0128-7702

e-ISSN 2231-8534

Article ID

JST-2528-2021

Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Related Articles