Home / Regular Issue / JSSH Vol. 47 (1) Feb. 2024 / JTAS-2753-2023


Zebrafish Housing: The Recirculating and Cost-effective Open Design Aquaria System

Siti Zaleha Raduan, Qamar Uddin Ahmed, Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad Rusmili, Awis Sukarne Mohmad Sabere, Muhammad Salahuddin Haris, Mohd. Farooq Shaikh, Wan Azizi Wan Sulaiman, Nor Asyikin Zukifli and Muhammad Hamdi Mahmood

Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, Volume 47, Issue 1, February 2024

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjtas.47.1.15

Keywords: Aquaria system, cost-effective, custom-made, open-design, recirculating, zebrafish

Published on: 23 Febuary 2024

The zebrafish’s ease of care and high reproductive rate have made them a popular animal model. It is routinely kept and maintained in commercial aquariums. However, the expense of a particular system was prohibitive for researchers with limited budgets or who worked in universities without zebrafish-rearing facilities. Thus, a simple custom-made aquaria system was developed. The recirculating open-design aquaria system was cost-effective and may frequently be improved. This study has developed a distinctive aquaria system that can tackle the issues related to expanding research based on zebrafish.

  • Aleström, P., D’Angelo, L., Midtlyng, P. J., Schorderet, D. F., Schulte-Merker, S., Sohm, F., & Warner, S. (2020). Zebrafish: Housing and husbandry recommendations. Laboratory Animals, 54(3), 213-224. https://doi.org/10.1177/0023677219869037

  • Aquaneering. (n.d.). zRack: Stand-alone zebrafish housing rack. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/60dcf03509a28849b95ce03e/t/624b662d5832a20961575a4e/1649108527902/zRack.pdf

  • Avdesh, A., Chen, M., Martin-Iverson, M. T., Mondal, A., Ong, D., Rainey-Smith, S., Taddei, K., Lardelli, M., Groth, D. M., Verdile, G., & Martins, R. N. (2012). Regular care and maintenance of a zebrafish (Danio rerio) laboratory: An introduction. Journal of Visualized Experiments, 69, e4196. https://doi.org/10.3791/4196

  • Bhargava, Y. (2018). Open-design recirculating systems for zebrafish culture. Aquacultural Engineering, 81, 71-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2018.03.004

  • Cockington, J. (2020). Aquatic housing. In S. C. Cartner, J. S. Eisen, S. C. Farmer, K. J. Guillemin, M. L. Kent, & G. E. Sanders (Eds.), The zebrafish in biomedical research: Biology, husbandry, diseases, and research applications (pp. 279-298). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812431-4.00026-9

  • Hammer, H. S. (2020). Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for zebrafish culture. In S. C. Cartner, J. S. Eisen, S. C. Farmer, K. J. Guillemin, M. L. Kent, & G. E. Sanders (Eds.), The zebrafish in biomedical research: Biology, husbandry, diseases, and research applications (pp. 337-356). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812431-4.00030-0

  • Harper, C., & Lawrence, C. (2011). The laboratory zebrafish (1st ed.). CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/b13588

  • Hernandez, P. P., Undurraga, C., Gallardo, V. E., Mackenzie, N., Allende, M. L., & Reyes, A. E. (2011). Sublethal concentrations of waterborne copper induce cellular stress and cell death in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Biological Research, 44(1), 7-15. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0716-97602011000100002

  • Howdeshell, K. L., Peterman, P. H., Judy, B. M., Taylor, J. A., Orazio, C. E., Ruhlen, R. L., Vom Saal, F. S., & Welshons, W. V. (2003). Bisphenol A is released from used polycarbonate animal cages into water at room temperature. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(9), 1180-1187. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.5993

  • Iwaki Aquatic. (n.d.). LabReed® zebrafish system. https://iwakiaquatic.com/literature/Zebrafish-Brochure.IALT-00454.pdf

  • Kroupová, H. K., Valentová, O., Svobodová, Z., Šauer, P., & Máchová, J. (2018). Toxic effects of nitrite on freshwater organisms: A review. Reviews in Aquaculture, 10(3), 525-542. https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12184

  • Lawrence, C., & Mason, T. (2012). Zebrafish housing systems: A review of basic operating principles and considerations for design and functionality. ILAR Journal, 53(2), 179-191. https://doi.org/10.1093/ilar.53.2.179

  • Leveque, R. E., Clark, K. J., & Ekker, S. C. (2016). Mayo Clinic zebrafish facility overview. Zebrafish, 13(S1), S-44-S-46. https://doi.org/10.1089/zeb.2015.1227

  • Liu, P., & Zhong, T. P. (2017). MAPK/ERK signalling is required for zebrafish cardiac regeneration. Biotechnology Letters, 39, 1069-1077. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10529-017-2327-0

  • Malone, R. (2013). Recirculating aquaculture tank production systems: A review of current design practice. https://srac.tamu.edu/categories/view/24

  • Matthews, M., Trevarrow, B., & Matthews, J. (2002). A virtual tour of the guide for zebrafish users. Resource, 31(3), 34-40. https://doi.org/10.1038/5000140

  • McNabb, A., Scott, K., Ochsenstein, E. v., Seufert, K., & Carl, M. (2012). Don’t be afraid to set up your fish facility. Zebrafish, 9(3), 120-125. https://doi.org/10.1089/zeb.2012.0768

  • Raduan, S. Z., Ahmed, Q. U., Kasmuri, A. R., Rusmili, M. R. A., Wan Sulaiman, W. A., Shaikh, M. F., Mahmood, M. H., Azmi, S. N. H., Ahmed, M. Z., & Kazmi, S. (2023). Neurotoxicity of aluminium chloride and okadaic acid in zebrafish: Insights into Alzheimer’s disease models through anxiety and locomotion testing, and acute toxicity assessment with Litsea garciae bark’s methanolic extract. Journal of King Saud University - Science, 35(7), 102807. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2023.102807

  • Ribeyre, F., Amiardtriquet, C., Boudou, A., & Amiard, J. C. (1995). Experimental-study of interactions between five trace elements-Cu, Ag, Se, Zn, and Hg-toward their bioaccumulation by fish (Brachydanio rerio) from the direct route. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 32(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1006/eesa.1995.1078

  • Rurangwa, E., & Verdegem, M. C. J. (2015). Microorganisms in recirculating aquaculture systems and their management. Reviews in Aquaculture, 7(2), 117-130. https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12057

  • Tecniplast. (2022). Aquartic solutions for facilities of any size. https://www.tecniplast.it/usermedia/en/2016/brochures/TP_AQUATICS.pdf

  • Timmons, M., & Ebeling, J. (2013). Recirculating aquaculture (3rd ed.). Ithaca Publishing Company.

  • TTF Group. (n.d.). Product catalog (Vol. 8). https://www.ttf.com.my/images/uploads/pdf/ttf-volume-8.pdf

  • Varga, Z. M. (2016). Aquaculture, husbandry, and shipping at the Zebrafish International Resource Center. In H. W. Detrich III, M. Westerfield, & L. I. Zon (Eds.), Methods in cell biology (Vol. 135, pp. 509-534). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.mcb.2016.01.007

  • Vargesson, N. A. (2007). Zebrafish. In S. Barnett (Ed.), Manual of animal technology. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.