Home / Regular Issue / JSSH Vol. 29 (3) Sep. 2021 / JSSH-8110-2021

 

Dimensions of National Ethos among Educated Youths in Malaysia

Mohd Mahadee Ismail, Nor Azlili Hassan, Azlina Abdullah, Hairol Anuar Mak Din, Marzudi Md Yunus and Mansor Mohd Noor

Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, Volume 29, Issue 3, September 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjssh.29.3.17

Keywords: Confirmatory factor analysis, educated youths, national ethos, Universiti Putra Malaysia

Published on: 27 September 2021

This article focuses on dimensions of national ethos among educated youths in Malaysia by developing a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model. The main objective is to evaluate national ethos dimensions and develop a CFA model of the national ethos formation. These objectives are achieved by applying four main dimensions to confirm the formation of national ethos: values, feelings and spirit, beliefs and identity dimensions. The study was conducted using a quantitative approach through survey techniques involving 431 students of Universiti Putra Malaysia, comprising 241 Malay and 190 Chinese youth groups. The data analysis used the SEM-AMOS approach to develop a CFA model of the national ethos. The results confirm national ethos of educated youth is formed through the four main dimensions measured. The CFA model has achieved a good level of compatibility based on the set indicators (CMIN = 600.947, DF = 115, CMIN / DF = 5.226, p = 0.000, SRMR = 0.0937, RMSEA = 0.099, CFI = 0.927 and PNFI = 0.771). This study implies a CFA model as a new approach in national ethos formation among educated youths in Malaysia. A future evaluation of a non-educated youth group should also be implemented to assure that this model becomes a holistic model.

  • Abd Rashid, A. R. (2004). Patriotisme: Agenda pembinaan bangsa [Patriotism: A nation building agenda]. Utusan Publications & Distributors Sdn. Bhd.

  • Abdullah, S. (2005). Patriotisme alaf baru: Dari semangat kepada khidmat Malaysia [New millennium patriotism: From passion to service]. In. H. Mohamad (Ed.), Belia dan patriotisme Malaysia (pp. 70-93). Institut Kajian Sejarah dan Patriotisme Malaysia (IKSEP).

  • Adey, P. (2012). How to engage? Assemblage as ethos/ethos as assemblage. Dialogues in Human Geography, 2(2), 198-201. https://doi.org/10.1177/2043820612449289

  • Allder, M. (1993). The meaning of ‘school ethos’. Westminster Studies in Education, 16(1), 59-69. https://doi.org/10.1080/0140672930160109

  • Bar-Tal, D. (2000). Shared beliefs in a society: Social psychological analysis. Sage Publication.

  • Bernstein, M. (2005). Identity politics. Annual Review of Sociology, 31, 47-74. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.29.010202.100054

  • Burchard, D. J. H. O’S. (2005). Ethos, ethics and endeavours: New horizons in family nursing. Journal of Family Nursing, 11(4), 354-370. https://doi.org/10.1177/1074840705281750

  • Burke, P. J. (2006). Identity change. Social Psychology Quarterly, 69(1), 81-96. https://doi.org/10.1177/019027250606900106

  • Byrne, B. M. (2010). Multivariate applications series. Structural equation modelling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

  • Cohen, J. (1969). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Academic Press.

  • Donnelly, C. (2000). Pursuit of school ethos. British Journal of Educational Studies, 48(2), 134-154. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8527.t01-1-00138

  • Eisner, E. (1994). Editorial in school climate and ethos conference report. Scottish Consultative Council on the Curriculum.

  • Embong, A. R. (2006). Negara-bangsa: Proses dan perbahasan [Nation-states: Processes and debates] (2nd ed.). Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Publisher.

  • Etzioni, A. (2009). Minorities and the national ethos. Politics, 29(2), 100-110. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9256.2009.01345.x

  • European Commission. (2012). The development of European identity/identities: Unfinished business. Author.

  • Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Pearson Education.

  • Haneef, M. A., Yusof, S. A., Amin, R. M., & Noon, H. M. (2002). Values and their relationship to social problems in Malaysia: An Islamic framework. The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 19(3), 58-78. https://doi.org/10.35632/ajis.v19i3.1921

  • Hoelscher, M., & Anheier, H. K. (2011). Indicator suites for heritage, memory, identity. In H. K. Anheier & Y. R. Isar (Eds.), Heritage, memory and identity (pp. 363-407). Sage Publication. http://doi.org/10.4135/9781446250839.n27

  • Huntington, S. P. (2004). Who are we?: America’s great debate. Free Press.

  • Ikhwan, H., & Aidulsyah, F. (2020). Sultanates and the making of nationhood in Indonesia and Malaysia. Asian Journal of Social Science, 48(3-4), 339-352. https://doi.org/10.1163/15685314-04803008

  • Ishak, M. S. (2011). Pengaruh kredibiliti terhadap penerima gunaan maklumat berkaitan Islam di internet Malaysia [The influence of credibility on the adoption of Islamic-related information on the internet; Unpublished doctoral thesis]. Universiti Putra Malaysia.

  • Ismail, M. M. (2013). Etos bangsa dan pembinaan negara-bangsa: Analisis pelatih Program Latihan Khidmat Negara Malaysia [National ethos and nation-state building: An analysis on trainees of Malaysian National Service Training Program]. In G. H. Pue (Ed.), Menyelusuri cabaran kepelbagaian: Pengalaman Malaysia terkini. UKM Ethnic Studies Paper Series No. 30 (pp. 105-142). Institute of Ethnic Studies.

  • Ismail, M. M. (2015). Sosialisasi politik, etos nasional dan negara-bangsa: Kajian pendidikan sivik dan Program Latihan Khidmat Negara (PLKN) dalam kalangan mahasiswa Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia [Political socialization, national ethos and nation-state: A study of civic education and National Service Training Program (PLKN) among Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) students, Malaysia; Unpublished doctoral thesis]. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

  • Ismail, M. M., Jawan, J., Ahmad, Z., Ab. Halim, A., & Darshan Singh, S. S. (2009). Penghayatan semangat patriotisme dan nasionalisme: Pelatih Program Latihan Khidmat Negara (PLKN) Malaysia [Appreciation of the spirit of patriotism and nationalism: Trainees of the Malaysian National Service Training Program (PLKN)]. Sciencefund Report, Kementerian Sains, Teknologi dan Inovasi Malaysia.

  • Jalaluddin, N. H., Baharuddin, S. A., Omar, M., & Mohd Noor, M. (2003). Pengasimilasian identiti nasional dan etos bangsa di kalangan rakyat Malaysia: Satu kajian sosio-budaya Malaysia [Assimilation of national identity and national ethos among Malaysians: A socio-cultural study]. Research Report Institute of the Malay World and Civilization. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

  • Jalaluddin, N. H., Baharuddin, S. A., Omar, M., & Mohd Noor, M. (2004). Identiti nasional dan etos bangsa Malaysia [Malaysians national identity and national ethos]. Dewan Budaya, 26(8), 9-13.

  • James, L. R., & Brett, J. M. (1984). Mediators, moderators, and tests for mediation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(2), 307-321. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.69.2.307

  • Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). The Guilford Press.

  • Kosterman, R., & Feshbach, S. (1989). Toward a measure of patriotic and nationalistic attitudes. Political Psychology, 10(2), 257-274. https://doi.org/10.2307/3791647

  • Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316447003000308

  • Lewin, E. (2015). National ethos as a necessary factor in mobilizing for warfare. Sociology Study, 5(6), 493‐509. https://doi.org/10.17265/2159-5526/2015.06.006

  • Lewin, E. (2016). The importance of national ethos in military victories. Social Sciences, 5(45), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci5030045

  • Liu, L., & Sai, S. (2017). Chinese culture value identity and patriotism spirit. In Proceedings of the 3rd Annual International Conference on Social Science and Contemporary Humanity Development (Vol. 90; pp. 97-102). Atlantis Press. https://doi.org/10.2991/sschd-17.2017.20

  • McClosky, H., & Brill, A. (1983). Dimensions of tolerance: What Americans believe about civil liberties. Russell Sage Foundations.

  • McClosky, H., & Zaller, J. (1984). The American ethos: Public attitudes toward capitalism and democracy. Harvard University Press.

  • McLaughlin, T. (2005). The educative importance of ethos. British Journal of Educational Studies, 53(3), 306-325. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8527.2005.00297.x

  • Mohamad, M. (1991). Malaysia melangkah ke hadapan Malaysia [Malaysia the way forward]. Institut Kajian Strategik dan Antarabangsa Malaysia.

  • Mohamad, T. M. (1992). Towards a united Malaysian nation. Jabatan Perkhidmatan Penerangan Malaysia. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12499/3727

  • Mohd Noor, M., Abdul Aziz, A. R., & Lee, M. A. I. (2006). Hubungan etnik di Malaysia [Ethnic relations in Malaysia]. Prentice Hall.

  • Mulaik, S. A., & Millsap, R. E. (2000). Doing the four-step right. Structural Equation Modeling, 7(1), 36-73. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0701_02

  • Oren, N. (2009). The Israeli ethos of conflict 1967-2006. George Mason University, Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution.

  • Oren, N., & Bar-Tal, D. 2006. Ethos and identity: Expressions and changes in the Israeli Jewish society. Studies in Psychology, 27(3), 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1174/021093906778965035

  • Payette, A., & Chien, Y. C. (2020). Culture or context? comparing recent trajectories of elder care development in China and Taiwan. Asian Journal of Social Science, 48(3-4), 227-249. https://doi.org/10.1163/15685314-04803003

  • Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. The Free Press.

  • Sarkowi, A. (2012). Penilaian program praktikum: Model pembentukan dan peningkatan kualiti guru praperkhidmatan di Institut Pendidikan Guru Malaysia [Evaluation of practicum programs: Formation and quality improvement model of pre-service teachers in Malaysia Institute of Teacher Education; Unpublished doctoral thesis]. Universiti Utara Malaysia.

  • Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2010). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  • Schwaninger, M. (2006). Intelligent organizations powerful models for systemic management. Springer.

  • Soanes, C., & Stevenson, A. (2004). The concise Oxford English dictionary. Oxford University Press.

  • Swenson, D. (2008). Religion and family link. Springer Science & Business Media.

  • Tamam, E., Yee, W. M. T., Idris, F., Hamzah, A., Mohamed, Z. A., Wong, S. L., & Mohd Noor, M. (2005). The relationship of exposure to news media with attachment to the national ethos. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 13(2), 187-198.

  • Tee Abdullah, M. R. (2015). Cabaran integrasi antara kaum di Malaysia: Perspektif media, pertubuhan bukan kerajaan dan parti politik Malaysia [Race integration challenge in Malaysia: Perspective of media, non-governmental organizations and political parties]. Jurnal Hadhari, 7(1), 33-60.

  • Terblanche, N. S., & Boshoff, C. (2008). Improved scale development in marketing: An empirical illustration. International Journal of Market Research, 50(1), 105-119. https://doi.org/10.1177/147078530805000108

  • Williams, R. M. (1967). Individual and group values. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1(371), 20-37. https://doi.org/10.1177/000271626737100102

  • Yusoff, A. K. (2005). Globalisasi, internasionalisasi dan nasionalisme dalam mempertahankan identiti Melayu [Globalization, internationalization and nationalism in defending the Malay identity]. Jurnal Pengajian Melayu, 16, 174-186.

ISSN 0128-7702

e-ISSN 2231-8534

Article ID

JSSH-8110-2021

Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Related Articles