Universiti Putra Malaysia
Download Latest Complete Journal - JTAS Vol. 41 (1) Feb. 2018
Foreword by the Chief Executive Editor
No.ArticlesDownloads
1
Full Article
(Downloads: 79)
Abstract (Viewed: 10)In Malaysia, an increasing number of new dairy goat farms are being opened by smallholders due to increasing demand for dairy goat products. However, most of the dairy goat farms are not managed well due to poor knowledge and information about the standard management of dairy goat. Indeed, low performance of dairy goats with respect to growth performance, feed utilisation, disease resistance and milk production has been associated with improper rearing protocol, specifically, herd health protocol. For this reason, implementation of a herd health management programme is important as a standard rearing management and disease control programme for dairy goat farms. A herd health management programme is a preventive programme intended to keep the herd healthy and free of disease through comprehensive husbandry management that includes nutrition management, breeding, parasite control, vaccination, biosecurity and environmental management with the goal of improving the herd's performance and productivity. However, the level of acceptance from farmers for implementing herd health management programmes varies, especially among smallholder farmers. Thus, veterinarians play an important role as advisor in transferring knowledge of the importance of herd health management to the farmers. Breeder, farm management, goat, herd health
2
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(Downloads: 43)
Abstract (Viewed: 2)Pre-treatment is a key step in the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Current pre-treatment techniques including physical, chemical and physico-chemical methods may increase the cost of production and produce inhibitors. In addition, they are not environmentally friendly. On the other hand, biological pre-treatment is mild, less costly, eco-friendly and consumes less energy. Despite all these benefits, several factors affect the biological pre-treatment process including microbial strain, the culture and environmental conditions as well as the type of lignocellulose material. To overcome these setbacks, different forms of biological pre-treatments such as microbial and ligninolytic enzyme pre-treatments as well as processes are studied. This review presents an overview of different forms of biological pre-treatment, various processes carried out with the aim of enhancing delignification and drawbacks of this pre-treatment process. Agricultural residues, biological pre-treatment, fungi, lignocellulosic biomass, ligninolytic enzymes
3
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(Downloads: 33)
Abstract (Viewed: 2)The agriculture sector in Malaysia contributes significantly to the country's economic growth and to national development. The series of Malaysia Development Plans (Plans) or 'Rancangan Malaysia', has set out strategies to ensure that productivity and growth of the agricultural industry become a mainstay of the five-year development programmes. The link between sustainable agriculture and sustainable water resources is acknowledged in the plans, and in several policy documents. In Kedah, MalaysJTAS-1139-2017ia's rice bowl, the Kedah Water Resources Enactment 2008 provides nine key regulatory aspects that can help realise the goals of sustainable agriculture. This paper briefly discusses the enactment, particularly the role it can play in ensuring sustainable development of the agriculture sector through efficient water-resource management. Sustainable water resources, sustainable agriculture, Kedah Water Resources Enactment 2008
4
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(Downloads: 22)
Abstract (Viewed: 3)Conventional semen examination involving sperm motility, viability and morphology remains the backbone of assessing the fertility status of a sire. However, there remains instances where these semen parameters appear normal but cases of low conception rates or failure of pregnancy occur. This review highlights the causes of sperm DNA damage and the effectiveness of techniques designed to evaluate the contribution of sperm DNA damage to lowered fertility in bulls. Among the many causes of sperm DNA impairment are imperfect spermatogenesis, faulty apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, in-vitro handling, impact of environment, radiography and the stress of cryopreservation processes. Furthermore, DNA impairment impairs fertilisation, interferes with embryonic development and implantation and blocks blastocyst formation. The most frequently used tests to determine DNA damage are the acridine orange test (AOT) using acridine orange stain with examination under a fluorescence microscope and the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) using the same stain but examined with flow cytometry. Sperm, DNA impairment, sperm DNA evaluation
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(Downloads: 22)
Abstract (Viewed: 2)Many net rainfall models have been developed, but they are often complex, data demanding and usable only for a specific vegetation type. The focus of this study was to develop and validate two simple equations (a two- and a three-coefficient equation) for nearly full canopies of oil palm, rubber and pine trees. Throughfall and stemflow data from seven past studies were used to determine the best-fit coefficients for the two equations. The three-coefficient equation was Pn = Pg x exp [- {0.3443 – (Pg / (58.9748 + Pg)} x 0.1639)] and the two-coefficient equation was Pn = 0.7724 x Pg – 0.5845 (R2 = 0.91), where Pn and Pg are the net and gross rainfall, respectively. To validate these two equations, field data collections were started. Thirteen rain gauges fit with data loggers were used for rainfall measurement. Three sampled trees were selected randomly for stemflow measurement and one rain gauge was installed at a nearby open area. Two error indices were used as a goodness-of-fit measure for equation accuracy: index of agreement and normalised mean absolute error. The results showed that the two- and three-equation equations performed nearly equally well. They predicted the net rainfall with an error of between 12 to 23% (ranked as "Fair" to "Good" in terms of overall equation accuracy) and with an index of agreement of more than 90%. The results showed that these two equations can be used fairly accurately to estimate throughfall and net rainfall, and, to a lesser degree, stemflow. Estimation errors occurred most probably because canopy and rainfall characteristics were not taken into account in the two equations. Interception loss, oil palm, pine, rainfall, rubber, stemflow, throughfall, water balance
6
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(Downloads: 22)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)The effects of melavonic acid (MVA) and linalool as precursors in the production of limonene and linalool on Citrus grandis Osbeck callus tissues were investigated. MVA and linalool were used as precursors to stimulate limonene production in the biosynthetic pathway. This study proved that low concentrations of MVA (0.077 mM to 1.557 mM) and linalool (0.056 mM to 1.117 mM) were able to produce limonene when tested on callus tissues for 7 to 35 days. The aim was to determine the highest accumulation of both limonene and linalool. The highest production of limonene obtained was 0.97 ppm on day 28 when the tissues were treated with linalool and 1.50 ppm on day 35 with the addition of 0.077 mM MVA. On the other hand, linalool concentration reached a maximum of 2.88 ppm on day 7 with tissues treated with 0.077 mM MVA. As the culture period lengthened, the limonene level increased from 0.76 ppm at day 7 to 1.82 ppm on day 28, whereas linalool concentration decreased steadily from 2.88 ppm at day 7 to 1.55 ppm at day 35. This is due to the bioconversion of linalool to limonene. The best result for precursor-treated tissues was at 0.838 mM linalool, where the limonene level achieved was 0.97 ppm on day 28. The production of limonene and linalool using low precursor concentrations within a short period of time is favourable as it has good market value. Mevalonic acid (MVA), linalool, precursor, limonene production, Citrus grandis Osbeck, albedo tissue culture
7
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(Downloads: 21)
Abstract (Viewed: 4)The widespread contamination of animal feed with mycotoxin is not a new issue worldwide. Apart from economic loss, mycotoxin can have adverse health effects on humans due to the carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and mutagenicity potential of the toxins. Palm kernel cake (PKC) is the largest animal feed production in Malaysia. PKC is a by-product of palm kernel oil processing and it has been exported as animal feed. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterise toxigenic fungi cultured in three different media, Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol (DRBC) Agar, Dichloran 18% Glycerol (DG18) Agar and Malt Extract Agar (MEA), derived from PKC that is stored under three different temperatures, 4°C, 25°C and 60°C. Identification of fungi was carried out based on macroscopy and microscopy as well as molecular identification. Four mycotoxigenic fungi were found: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicilium citrinum. In order to characterise polymorphism of the isolates, RAPD assay was performed using OPA 3 as the primer. The software resulted in a constructed dendrogram that revealed the percentage of similarities between the typable isolates (A. fumigatus, A. niger and P. citrinum) within range from 20% to 80%. The effect of storage temperature on the strains' enumeration is reported in this work. The distributing strains are influenced by the storage temperature of the PKC matrices. The findings clearly show that Aspergillus species profused at 25°C PKC storage, while it was restricted at low and high temperature. Mycotoxin, PKC, fungi, media, RAPD assay, temperature
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(Downloads: 13)
Abstract (Viewed: 2)The survival of snails has been associated with the microclimate variables of their environment. Therefore, a comparative analysis of the biochemical composition of the haemolymph, mineral and proximate analysis of the flesh of the giant African land snail (Archachatina marginata) obtained from five southwestern states of Nigeria was conducted. Mature snails purchased from notable markets in Ogun, Oyo, Lagos, Osun and Ondo states were dissected. An analysis of the biochemical composition of the haemolymph and proximate composition of the flesh was done using standard methods, while a mineral composition analysis of the flesh and haemolymph was done using a Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and Flame Photometer. Snails from Oyo state had significantly higher (p<0.05) concentrations of glucose (35.00±0.20), protein (54.15±0.02) and lipid (22.90±0.05) in their haemolymph than those from the other locations. Concentrations of Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and PO42- were observed to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in the haemolymph of the snails than in the flesh. Protein was observed to be higher than other metabolites in both the haemolymph and the flesh of A. marginata collected from the five states. The flesh of snails obtained from Ogun state recorded significantly higher (p<0.05) values of ash (1.73±0.02), crude fibre (1.01±0.01), crude protein (20.22±0.02) and carbohydrate (1.09±0.01) content than those from the other states examined. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the values of Mg2+, PO42- and Cl- across the five states. Although climatic conditions could have influenced some biochemical composition of the snails, the snails collected from the five southwestern states of Nigeria examined were equally nutritious. Haemolymph, proximate, mineral, environment, climate, snail biochemistry
9
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(Downloads: 21)
Abstract (Viewed: 3)Bocourti's catfish (Pangasius bocourti Sauvage) is one of Asia's economic freshwater fish. The fish has high demand in Asian markets particularly as a frozen product due to its tasty meat and a size that makes it suitable for cooking as fish steak. However, there are few studies about its production and quality. For frozen products, soaking in appropriate chemicals and conditions is the key procedure that food producers use to improve the quality of the frozen fillet. Therefore, this research aims to establish the optimum conditions for soaking. Several phosphate compounds, sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP), tetra sodium pyrophosphate (TSPP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), were investigated. It was found that the best phosphate compound was STPP that provided high L*, a*, gained weight, cooking yield and sensory acceptability with less drip loss and cooking loss. Consequently, the optimisation of the soaking condition was conducted. The three main factors, STPP (0.13-4.38% w/v), soaking time (3-37 min) and salt concentration (0.30-3.70% w/v), were optimised by response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the optimised condition was STPP of 2.56%, soaking time of 37 min and salt concentration of 3.70%. At this condition, the obtained frozen fillets showed a good result with gained weight of 11.45%, cooking yield of 73.11%, a* of 10.97 and °h of 9.94, respectively. phosphate, Pangasius bocourti Sauvage, frozen fillets, response surface methodology, soaking conditions
10
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(Downloads: 15)
Abstract (Viewed: 2)The reduction in rice productivity as a result of elevated daily temperature due to climate change is a major concern for Thailand. This study aimed to investigate hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage of rice seedlings grown from seeds exposed to different temperature (25°C, 35°C and 40°C) treatments over a short (one week) and long (two weeks) period before germination. Three rice cultivars were investigated, Dular, KDML105 and Riceberry. The experiment was designed in RCBD with six replications. The results indicated that Riceberry seeds produced a greater percentage of normal seedlings after both short- and long-term heat treatment (40°C). By contrast, KDML105 seeds exposed to 40°C for one and two weeks gave rise to the highest percentage of abnormal seedlings. The highest oxidative stress indicated by the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide was found in abnormal seedlings of cvs. KDML105 and Riceberry after short- and long-term heat (40°C) exposure, respectively. The effect of heat stress on membrane stability was indicated by MDA content and electrolyte leakage. MDA content was the highest in abnormal seedlings of cv. Riceberry after heat exposure for two weeks. High electrolyte leakage due to both short- and long-term high temperature treatment was found in abnormal seedlings of all the rice cultivars. Heat exposure to rice seeds at 40°C for one week induced the highest percentage of abnormal seedlings in KDML 105 coinciding with the highest hydrogen peroxide content and membrane damage. These results provide crucial information for consideration in breeding programmes for heat-tolerant rice cultivars. Temperature stress, seed germination, oxidative stress, membrane stability
11
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(Downloads: 15)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)Black pepper is a perennial climber and the provision of a supporting post is important for the successful establishment of black pepper planting in the producing countries. With the high cost of establishing black pepper planting using the traditional Belian post, there is a need to develop alternative posts for its sustainability. The study was carried out to evaluate the use of Kenaf composite posts for black pepper planting compared to the commonly used Belian post as supporting material. Three types of Kenaf composite posts, namely, Kenaf Extrusion, Kenaf Pultrusion and Kenafkrete posts, together with mechanically controlled fibre-glass posts, were investigated for black pepper planting. The epiphytical response of black pepper plant, accelerated laboratory decay test, leaf temperature, leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit and the leaf gas exchange rate were the parameters assessed in this study to indicate the suitability of the composite post for black pepper growing. The trial plot was established at thoroughly exposed conditions to determine the sustainability of Kenaf composite posts at open field conditions. The study demonstrated that adventitious roots of black pepper plants were able to bind on all types of support except the Kenafkrete post, which showed a low number of cling roots. On durability observation, the Kenaf Extrusion post showed severe bending and was intolerant to field weather conditions, whereas the Kenafkrete post showed moderate level of cracks on the post. The laboratory decay test indicated that Kenaf composite posts were highly resistant to wood decay fungi and performed better than Belian post. It was discovered that Kenaf Extrusion contributed to an adverse microclimate environment for the growth of black pepper by showing significantly (p<0.05) higher leaf temperature and leaf-to-air VPD. Leaf photosynthesis rates (A) and leaf stomatal conductance (gs) of black pepper supported by Belian, Kenaf Pultrusion, Kenafkrete and fibre-glass were comparatively (p<0.05) higher than recorded for Kenaf Extrusion. The results of this study implied that among the supports studied, Kenaf Pultrusion and fibre-glass posts showed positive results as good alternative supports to the currently used Belian post for black pepper planting. Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), supporting post, composite post
12
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(Downloads: 22)
Abstract (Viewed: 6)Sabah, also known as North Borneo, is one of the states in Malaysia. It is home to many local varieties of rice, but the self-sufficiency quotient for rice production is only about 30%. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of crops has been utilised to increase crop yields including rice in different countries, but the information regarding the genetic diversity of Sabah traditional rice varieties is very limited. Therefore, we report a comprehensive genetic diversity and relationship study of 22 Sabah traditional rice varieties in three main divisions of Sabah including the West Coast Division (WCD), Sandakan Division (SD), and Interior Division (ID) using 11 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Our results showed that more than half of the collected rice seeds were medium in size and shape, with moderately high head rice recovery and low moisture content. In addition, about half of them were categorised with high to very high amylose content. Genetic analysis revealed a total of 75 bands were produced using all RAPD markers with 100% polymorphism, and a high degree of genetic variation among all Sabah traditional rice varieties was obtained. The genetic differentiation of Sabah's traditional rice varieties was more likely to occur within divisions rather than among divisions. Furthermore, Sabah traditional rice varieties in ID showed the greatest genetic diversity and polymorphic loci, and were closely related to rice varieties in SD but genetically dissimilar to those in WCD as revealed in both phylogenetic tree and principal component analysis. In conclusion, this study provides breeders with reliable information regarding diversity of Sabah's traditional rice varieties; the data could also be beneficial for local rice yield enhancement. Genetic diversity, Sabah's traditional rice, RAPD, phylogenetic tree, principal component analysis
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(Downloads: 14)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)An experiment was carried out to evaluate the biochemical response of mustard to naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Six levels of NAA such as G0 (no NAA or control), G1 (30 ppm ha-1), G2 (50 ppm ha-1), G3 (70 ppm ha-1), G4 (90 ppm ha-1) and G5 (110 ppm ha-1) were tested. The leaf chlorophyll content was recorded at 30, 40, 50 and 60 days after emergence (DAE). The NAA significantly influenced the biochemical property. The highest chlorophyll level was recorded in 70 ppm NAA ha-1 at 50 DAE. At 45 DAE, the highest nitrogen content was noted in 70 ppm NAA ha-1. The 70 ppm NAA ha-1 also showed the maximum oil content. The minimum acid value, peroxide and saponification values were found in 70 ppm NAA ha-1. The maximum iodine value was observed in 70 ppm NAA ha-1. Nonessential chemicals likes stearic, palmitic and erucic acid were augmented in the mustard with a decrease in the NAA level while necessary fatty acids were highest in 70 ppm NAA ha-1. It is suggested that 70 ppm NAA ha-1 can be used to grow quality mustard plants. Brassica campestries, fatty acid, NAA, oil content, oil quality
14
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(Downloads: 23)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of growth regulators on growth, yield and the quality of okra. Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) and Gibberellin (GA3) were applied as foliar spray and stem and flower injection at concentrations of 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 mg/L on okra plants. The results showed that foliar spray of 90 mg/L IAA, increased the number of leaves, number of branches, number of flowers and number of pods. On the other hand, spraying of 90 mg/L GA3 increased stomatal conductance and pod weight of okra, while the highest chlorophyll content was recorded with 60 mg/L GA3. Stem injection of 120 mg/L IAA produced the highest number of leaves, number of branches, number of flowers, number of pods and plant height. Similarly, 120 mg/L GA3 as stem injection increased the number of branches, number of leaves, number of flowers and number of pods and total soluble solids (TSS). Flower injection of IAA at 30 and 90 mg/L increased pod size, pod weight, pod number and TSS content, while seed production was inhibited by 120 mg/L IAA. GA3 used in a 90 mg/L treatment as flower injection increased pod size and TSS content. It is concluded that the application of 120 mg/L IAA and 90 mg/L GA3 increased the growth, development and quality of the okra fruit and stem and that flower injection worked better than foliar spray. GA3, growth regulators, IAA, injection, okra, spray
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(Downloads: 13)
Abstract (Viewed: 2)Anatomical and histochemical studies on leaves of Syzygium aromaticum and Clausena excavata have been carried out. This study was conducted in order to investigate the relationship between aroma production and a plant's secretory structures. Leaves from the two tropical aromatic plants were sampled from the Institute of Bioscience (IBS) Conservatory Park and transversely sectioned through lamina, midrib and petiole with a sliding microtome for anatomical investigation. Through light microscopy, oil cells and secretory cavities were distributed near the adaxial and abaxial epidermal layers with large in size, up to 60 µm length. Other leaf anatomical characters such as shape of petiole and midrib, pattern of vascular bundle, palisade and spongy mesophyll, the presence or absence of brachysclereids and crystals are also observed. This study also aimed to investigate the leaf's secretory structures responsible for plants' aroma production and to detect the presence of terpenes and essential oil in secretory structures histochemically. Aroma, secretory structures, terpenes, essential oils, oil cells, oil cavities
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(Downloads: 19)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)Abrus precatorius is a flowering plant that belongs to the legume family, Fabaceae. In Malaysia, the leaves of Abrus precatorius are used traditionally to treat ailments such as fever, ulcer and mouth cancer. These traditional practices, however, have never been documented and usage of the plant is based on popular beliefs held by the local people. This work documented the phytocompounds that are present in the aqueous extract of Abrus precatorius leaves collected from a local area in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. The leaves were dried and then subjected to extraction using the decoction technique. The compounds were identified by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis and characterised by comparison through the NIST02 and Wiley275 library search software. The GC-MS analysis showed that the classes of compounds identified in aqueous extracts of Abrus precatorius leaves were phenolic compounds, terpenoids and steroids. Abrus precatorius, aqueous extract, GC-MS
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(Downloads: 19)
Abstract (Viewed: 4)Rubber seedlings raised in the soil-polybag system experience root coiling and restriction and the overhead sprinkler results in much water wastage. The objective of the study was to determine the influence of root trainers and three irrigation systems on rubber seedlings grown in a peat-based medium. The irrigation systems were the overhead sprinkler (SPR), drip (DRP) and capillary wick (WCK). The fourth treatment was the control (CTRL), which required growing rubber seedlings in conventional soil-polybags that were then irrigated using the wick system. The treatments were compared with one another in terms of their influence on nutrient loss, crop water productivity and water use efficiency, plant growth parameters and plant nutrient content of the rubber seedlings. A field experiment was carried out in a rain shelter for eight months, and data collection was carried out once per month. The experimental layout was the completely randomised block design. The results showed that WCK had the lowest cumulative leachate volume and the least cumulative nutrients leached. Both DRP and WCK had the highest plant growth parameters such as total fresh and dry weight, total leaf area and girth size, water productivity and leaf nutrient content. WCK was the best irrigation system together with the peat-based growing medium for raising rubber nursery seedlings. Irrigation, capillary, wick, Hevea brasiliensis, rubber, water use, water productivity
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(Downloads: 14)
Abstract (Viewed: 3)This study investigated the ability of the mangrove species to accumulate heavy metals such as lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Concentrations of these metals in sediment, roots and leaves of Avicennia alba, Sonneratia alba, Avicennia marina and Rhizopora mucronata found in the mangrove ecosystem of the Porong River estuary, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia were measured. The bio-concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) were calculated. The results showed that Pb concentrations in the roots and leaves of mangroves were 0.0038-0.0505 mg/kg and 0.0042-0.0395 mg/kg, respectively, while Cu concentration in the roots of mangroves was 0.2658-0.3390 mg/kg and in the mangrove leaves was 0.0655-0.1490 mg/kg. The average concentration of Zn found in mangroves ranged from 1.327-3.1380 mg/kg in the roots and 1.767-3.674 mg/kg in the leaves. Among all the mangroves, the highest BCF values for Pb, Cu and Zn were found in Avicennia alba. However, the highest TF for Pb and Zn was found in Sonneratia alba. On the other hand, the highest TF for Cu was found in Rhizopora mucronata. The capability of Avicennia alba to accumulate Pb, Cu and Zn heavy metals compared with other species is highly important for determining a suitable species for phytoremediation. Bioaccumulation, bio-concentration, heavy metals, mangrove wetland, phytoremediation
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(Downloads: 12)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)Biomass allocation to root, culm, leaf, and grain of 20 upland rice cultivars was assessed in pots set up in an open field experiment. The cultivars consisted of 18 upland NERICA rice (N 1 to N 18) and Funaabor 1 and 2. The rice cultivars were grown under rainfed condition on 5 kg soils collected along a toposequence designated as Upper Crest (UC), Middle Slope (MS), and Valley Bottom (VB) soils. Plants were harvested at maturity for biomass allocation pattern into various organs. Toposequence soils and cultivar significantly (p<0.01) influenced all the fractions of biomass and standing biomass to different organs except root dry weight (RDW) and root mass fraction (RMF) for the latter. The lowest standing and fraction of biomass to root (3.64g and 0.08 respectively), culm (17.92g and 0.42 respectively), and leaf (3.59g and 0.08 respectively) of the rice cultivars were observed on VB soils. Principal Component (PC) biplot accounted for 95.67% and 97.38% of the total variation in standing biomass and fractions of biomass to organs respectively. Higher grain weight per plant was observed in NERICA 2 and 15 and was closely associated with standing biomass to root than to culm and leaf. Upland rice grown on UC soil accumulated more biomass to vegetative parts with concomitant decrease in fraction of biomass allocated to reproductive structures unlike rice cultivars grown on VB soils. Hence, growing upland rice on VB of a toposequence promotes increase of biomass allocation to grains. JTAS-1106-2017Biomass fractions, PC biplot, standing biomass, toposequence, upland rice
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(Downloads: 14)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)Rodent tuber (Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd.), which is a well known herbal plant from the Araceae family, is know for its anticancer activities. The genetic variation of rodent tuber is low due to its commonly applied vegetative propagation methods. Thus, its genetic variation has to be increased to obtain a new and superior plant containing a high amount of anticancer compounds. The aim of this study was to analyse the chemical compounds of the leaves and tubers of rodent tuber' mutant and non irradiated (control) plants by GC-MS method. In this study, in vitro calli of rodent tuber was irradiated with 6 Gy of gamma ray which produced mutant plantlets which was genetially different from non irradiated (control) plants. Mutant plantlets had been acclimated and propagated in the greenhouse to obtain the 6th generation vegetative mutant clones (MV6), which are stable superior mutants. The results indicated that MV6 contained six new anticancer compounds in the leaves and four new anticancer compounds in the tubers which have not been detected in control. The new anticancer compounds present in leaves and tubers were identified by GC-MS. They are hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, octadecadienoic acid, phytol¸ gamma-sitosterol, eicosane, geranylgeraniol, squalene, octacosane and 7-pentadecyne. MV6, is the new superior variety and a potential source of anticancer drugs. Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd., new superior mutant, anticancer bioactive component, Indonesia
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(Downloads: 13)
Abstract (Viewed: 2)To date, 124 durian varieties have been registered with the Malaysian Department of Agriculture based on phenotypic characteristics. However, the levels and patterns of genetic variation among the varieties are still unknown. In this study, the leaves of 27 durian varieties were sampled from four durian orchards in Universiti Putra Malaysia, namely Bukit Ekspo, Putra Mart, Ladang Puchong and Ladang 5. Twenty five inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers were tested for PCR amplification on DNA samples. Twelve ISSR primers amplified 133 clear and reproducible DNA fragments and 122 (91.73%) were polymorphic, indicating a high level of genetic variation among these durian varieties. Primers flanking four chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions (trnL-trnF, atpB-rbcL and trnH-psbA intergenic spacers as well as the partial matK gene) were tested for PCR amplification. Two cpDNA regions (trnL-trnF and matK) were successfully amplified, but showed no variation in their DNA sequences, even when additional samples from Vietnam were included. The findings in this preliminary study lay a foundation for more comprehensive future studies on the genetic variation among durian varieties. Chloroplast DNA sequence, DNA barcoding, Durio zibethinus, genetic diversity, inter-simple sequence repeat
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(Downloads: 18)
Abstract (Viewed: 3)Sexual dimorphism is often directly linked to sexual selection, mating systems and resource partitioning, which are crucial in species conservation and management. Many avian species, including pollinator birds, are sexually dimorphic with respect to size and colour, yet, such differences may be subtle for some species. In this study, molecular sexing was performed in addition to determining morphological parameters that can aid in future sex determination of a common forest pollinator, the little spiderhunter (Arachnothera longirostra), in Peninsular Malaysia. Based on 23 captures made in four forests, two out of seven body measurements (i.e. wing and tail lengths) were useful in predicting the sexes of the bird with 100% accuracy. In addition, significant differences were found in the head, bill, and total body lengths. Such findings will facilitate more effective sex identification in future field studies, particularly in the case of juveniles. Arachnothera longirostra, Discriminant function analysis, Morphometric sexing, Pollinators, Sexual dimorphism
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(Downloads: 10)
Abstract (Viewed: 2)The aim of this study was to assess the performance of concentrate feeding on intake and growth rate in goats. A total of 14 non-castrated male crossbred (Saanen×Local) goats of approximate age of 6 months and average initial live weight of 23.5±3.8 kg were used in a completely randomised design. The animals were divided into two treatment groups: control group and concentrate group. Both groups were fed their respective diets ad libitum throughout the experiment. The goats on the concentrate diet were also supplemented daily with 400 g fresh Napier grass variety for each animal. Chemical composition of the diets, intake and growth rate of the goats were evaluated. No differences (p>0.05) were observed in dry matter and organic matter intakes except for crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) (p< 0.05). The control group showed higher intakes of CP and NDF compared to the goats in the concentrate group. However, no differences were observed (p>0.05) in the growth performance and feed conversion ratio between the control and concentrate groups. There was no significant effect on daily weight gain of the goats fed the concentrate diets, suggesting that corn and soya waste with 400 g fresh Napier grass can support moderate weight gain in Saanen crossbred goats. Concentrate feeding, crossbred goat, feed intake, growth rate, soya waste
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(Downloads: 11)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)The Red Palm Weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier is a pest which targets coconut palms in Malaysia. The RPW-coconut interaction leads to a toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), predominantly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radicals (), thus activating its protective antioxidant system. This study looks at the catalase; CAT, ascorbate peroxidase; APX and guaiacol peroxidase; g-POD specific activities as well as ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and carotenoids content in the most commonly planted coconut cultivar, MATAG. Fourteen months old MATAG plants were infested with RPW for 28 days. The antioxidant assays were carried out at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of infestation at upper and lower parts of the stem. The CAT activities were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the upper part of infested coconuts (11.72 ± 0.78 units/mg protein) compared with its control (1.68 ± 0.55 units/mg protein), especially at 7 days of treatment. G-POD specific activities were also significantly higher (p<0.05) in the upper part of infested coconuts (484.12 ± 31.30 units/mg protein) compared with its control (160.21 ± 47.58 units/mg protein). In contrast, APX specific activities were induced to 46.94 ± 2.26 units/mg protein, especially at 14 days of infestation at the lower part whereas the APX activities were slowly increased at the upper part of stem. The RPW infestation managed to significantly increase (p<0.05) the carotenoids content in infested MATAG whereas there were no significant changes in ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol in infested and control plants. This study revealed that different antioxidants have different role in combating the oxidative stress induced by RPW in MATAG cultivar. Coconut cultivar MATAG, Enzymatic antioxidants, Non-enzymatic antioxidants, Oxidative stress, Red Palm Weevil
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Abstract (Viewed: 2)Residue management in sugar-cane cultivation is crucial for improving soil health, as it positively impacts the increase of sugar cane productivity. The study aimed to describe the effect of sugar-cane residue management using ammonium sulfate fertiliser and its substitute on cane and sugar yield in plant and ratoon cane. A pot experiment was conducted using a factorial block randomised design. The first factor is N and S fertilisation, consisting of ammonium sulfate (AS), urea, gypsum and bio-compost. The second factor is the residue management consisting of four levels, namely burnt residue, residue incorporated into the soil, residue put on the soil surface and composted residue. These treatments were tested on the first and second cane. The results showed that the composted residue gave the highest increase in cane and sugar yield by 83.7% and 81.2%, respectively on the ratoon cane when compared with the plant cane. Fertilisation using urea, bio-compost and gypsum showed the highest cane yield. The results suggested that composted residue can be applied in sugar-cane cultivation in dry land to increase nutrient uptake and cane and sugar yield in plant and ratoon cane. Cane and sugar yield, fertilisation, plant cane, ratoon cane, residue management
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Abstract (Viewed: 1)This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of storing sugar cane stem at room temperature on the activity of its cellulase enzyme. Cellulase was partially purified and characterised from freshly harvested sugarcane (FHS) and stored sugarcane (SS) (Saccharum officinarum L) using 80% ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysed; the FHS had 136.52 units/mg protein while the SS 184.53 units/mg proteins. The Km value of cellulase of SS was 0.09 mg/ml while that of FHS was 0.540 mg/ml. The substrate specificity on different cellulose materials (orange peel, banana peel, maize starch, sugarcane bagasse, maize cob and apple pomace) showed varying results for the two enzyme sources. The enzyme from FHS showed 100% activity with banana peel and sugar cane bagasse while the enzyme from SS showed 100% activity with the peels of orange and banana and sugar cane bagasse. Maize cob and apple pomace as carbon source showed very little cellulase activities, 17.4% for FHS and 26.6% for SS. The optimum pH value of partially purified cellulase of FHS was 4.0 while that of SS was 7.0 and the enzyme was optimally active at 40°C for both sources. At the concentrations of 1.0 mM and 10.0 mM, Ca2+ and Na2+ caused the enzyme activity to increase by 100% residual activity in both FHS and SS. Cellulase of stored sugarcane have increased activity compared with cellulase of freshly harvested sugarcane since it exhibited a very low Km. Cellulase, purification, pH, sugarcane, specific activity, temperature
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Abstract (Viewed: 1)Eastern Himalaya is still unexplored in terms of the traditional rice, a reservoir of qualitative traits. The traditional rice is in serious threats from the social diversion and reduction in agricultural practices. The study was conducted to evaluate the status of the genetic resource of indigenous Rice (Oryza sativa L.) landraces and its diversity. Forty-one rice varieties were reported from diverse elevation exposures. Both univariate and multivariate statistical analysis had provided plenty of evidence on existence of polymorphism. Pearson's correlation of traits revealed1.8 % of the trait combinations correlated strongly (r = 0.68–1.00), 2.23 % correlated weakly (r ≤ 0.35), while 5.69% correlated moderately (r = 0.36–0.67). The dendrogram obtained from Euclidian distance and UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean), revealed three distinct clusters. The cluster analysis using the UPGMA and Euclidean distance revealed the range of genetic distance to be 10 to 757 and obtained three different clusters based on hierarchical clustering. The similarity was observed to be maximum between ACC47 and ACC48 and minimum between ACC46 and ACC49. Out of thirty independent principal components (PCs), top five PCs cumulatively account for 51.74% of the variance. Individual analysis of the factor loadings of the characters in the retained PCs showed that grain related traits have highest positive factor loadings in both PC1 (15.30% of the total variation) and PC2 (16.30% of the variance). While, the first two principal components (PC1 and PC2) cumulatively explained 27.61% of the total variance. The region has a potential for rice genetic resources, which can be a source of impending qualitative traits that can be useful for breeding purposes. Rice, agronomy, plant genetic resource, agrobiodiversity
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Abstract (Viewed: 1)Aloe Vera is a valuable medicinal plant. Its leaf and gel in particular are widely used as skin care and in medical applications. Salinity however, is an abiotic stress, and can negatively affect the plant's morphological characteristics as well as quality and quantity of its phyto-chemical compounds of, including total phenol, total soluble sugars and its components, namely sucrose, glucose, and fructose. In order to investigate the impact of salinity stress on morphological and physiological traits of plant, different levels of NaCl, namely 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM were applied in a complete randomised design with three replications under greenhouse conditions. The results indicated that salinity stress has significant negative effect on the plant's morphological traits, such as its weight, leaf length, leaf weight, gel weight, root length; and biochemical traits such as total phenol, total soluble sucrose, glucose and fructose. The results of this study indicate that salinity stress has significant negative effect on Aloe Vera's morphological traits which results in yield loss. Moreover, biochemical traits such as photosynthetic and defences of plants are also affected. It is thus, clear that Aloe Vera is susceptible to salinity stress. Medicinal Plant, Morphological traits, Phenol compounds, Phyto-Chemical, Soluble sugars
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Abstract (Viewed: 1)Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) is currently the most devastating virus of cultivated tomatoes in tropical and subtropical regions, accounting for significant yield losses in cultivated tomato in Ghana. Severe population outbreaks of the whitefly vector (Bemisia tabaci), are usually associated with high incidence of the disease. Resistance breeding is the surest solution to TYLCV in developing viable seeds for increased tomato production in Ghana. The Wild tomato (Solanum pimpinellifolium L.) is a recognised crop Wild species (CWS) with resistance genes to different diseases including the TYLCV disease and possesses good fruit quality traits in Ghana. Three (3) cultivated tomato varieties and seven breeding lines developed from crosses between the Wild tomato and three hybrids, three backcrossed lines and the Wild tomato were evaluated with their parents against TYLCV disease under local field conditions. Field appraisal of whitefly populations, disease incidence and severity, agronomic and yield characteristics of the tomato varieties/breeding lines were undertaken to hasten selection of tolerant/resistant varieties or breeding lines in the breeding programme. Wild tomato (ISSAP = 0.31 and ISSDP = 0.76) and Woso (ISSAP = 1.90 and ISSDP = 2.27) recorded the least and highest average symptom severity on all plants (ISSAP) and diseased plants only (ISSDP); while the least and highest disease incidence was recorded by the Wild tomato (11.10%) and Roma (43.05%). Roma which recorded the highest population of whiteflies in the dry season also exhibited the highest symptom severity on all plants as well as diseased plants during the study period. There was a significant symptom relapse in Wild tomato and Woso x Wild in 6-8 WAT for both ISSAP and ISSDP. Number of fruits per plant, ISSAP and ISSDP were positively and/or inversely correlated (r = 0.98, 0.93, -0.83) with average whitefly count, percent disease incidence and yield (t/ha). Backcross, Geminiviruses, varieties/breeding lines, Ghana, Tomato, TYLCVD, resistance breeding
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Abstract (Viewed: 1)Coconuts grow abundantly in the coastal areas of tropical countries. About 33-35% of the coconut is made of husk which includes mesocarp and exocarp. In Malaysia, the coconut husk is available in large quantities as the residue from coconut production. In previous works, natural pigments from the exocarp and mesocarp were extracted using microwave-assisted extraction. The current study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of these pigments extracts. Quantitative determination of total phenolics and antioxidant capacities of these extracts were assayed for their ability to scavenge DPPH radicals and chelate ferrous ion. The total phenolic content, expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of extract, was found to be 32.24 mg GAE/g and 8.63 mg GAE/g in the mesocarp and exocarp respectively. The radical scavenging activity measurement, expressed in terms of mmol Trolox equivalent (TE) per gram of extract, was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the mesocarp (119.96 mM TE/g) compared with the exocarp (55.27 mM TE/g). Meanwhile, the reducing ability showed significantly (p<0.05) higher value in the mesocarp extract (751.89 mM Fe2+/g) compared with the exocarp extract (264.36 mM Fe2+/g). Thus, this study indicated the possible use of pigment extract as a source of natural antioxidant, which has great potential in the food industry and medicinal applications. Antioxidant, exocarp, mesocarp, microwave-assisted extraction and natural pigment
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Abstract (Viewed: 1)The study was carried out to evaluate the nutritive quality of Enterolobium Cyclocarpum seeds. Matured pods of E. Cyclocarpum were handpicked and seeds were manually separated. Seeds were either toasted, boiled or untreated (raw). The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design consisting of three treatment groups replicated four times with a total seed of 0.5 kg per replicate. The result of the chemical analysis showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) for all the parameters investigated. The crude protein content was significantly highest (P<0.05) (24.9%) in boiled E. Cyclocarpum seeds and least (22.4%) in the raw seeds. Untreated (raw) seeds recorded highest (P<0.05) contents for all the secondary metabolites (saponin, tannin, oxalate and trypsin) investigated in this study while boiled seeds recorded lowest. Treatment methods had a significant (P<0.05) effect on the in vitro gas production of E. Cyclocarpum seeds with the boiled seeds having highest gas production (72 ml/200 mg DM at 48 hours of incubation). The study showed that boiling of E. Cyclocarpum seeds improved its chemical composition and gas production, suggesting that moist heat treatment is preferable when making use of seeds in ruminant diets. Anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition, Enterolobium Cyclocarpum seeds, gas production, processing
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Abstract (Viewed: 6)A diversity study of the subfamilies of Braconidae was conducted at Fraser's Hill, Pahang, Malaysia. Sampling took place at three different altitudes using Malaise traps: lower altitude (<500m), intermediate altitude (501-1000m) and higher altitude (>1000m). A total of 572 individuals of braconids were collected from the three altitudes and comprised 15 subfamilies: Agathidinae, Alysiinae, Blacinae, Braconinae, Cheloninae, Doryctinae, Euphorinae, Helconinae, Lysiterminae, Microgastrinae, Miracinae, Opiinae, Orgilinae, Pambolinae and Rogadinae. There were 435 individuals and 55 species, 84 individuals and 30 species, and 53 individuals and 26 species, with a diversity index of H'= 3.75, 2.91 and 3.01, representing the lower, intermediate and higher altitudes, respectively. The diversity index of the lower altitude (H'=3.75) was significantly different from the intermediate (p=0.00, <0.05) and higher altitudes (p=0.00, <0.05). There was no significant difference between the intermediate and higher altitudes (p=0.86, >0.05). This is probably due to the variability of host and food availability i in lowlands compared with highlands. Altitude, braconid, diversity, abundance
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Abstract (Viewed: 2)Exposure of Neospora Caninum parasite in sheep and goats in Kelantan was first reported in March 2016. Out of 10 districts surveyed in Kelantan, Gua Musang was the only district with seropositive animals, suggesting that there might be potential infection of this parasite in sheep and goats in this area. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to February 2016 to investigate the prevalence and impact of N. Caninum in sheep and goats in that area. A total of 311 sheep and goat blood samples from 37 farms and 10 animals from each farm were collected. A questionnaire on the risk factors (abortion history, presence of dogs and closeness to the cattle farms) was developed for analysis. Serological test was done using a commercial ELISA kit. Seroprevalence was found to be 0.32% (1/311). Although the results i.e. presence of stray dogs (32.4%; 12/37), abortion history (48.6%; 18/37) and closeness to the cattle farms (27%; 10/37) were rather high, the very low seroprevalence showed that these risk factors were not related to neospora infection. The results suggested that N. Caninum was not the cause of reproductive failure in sheep and goats in Gua Musang. Gua Musang, Malaysia, Neospora Caninum, prevalence, sheep and goats
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Abstract (Viewed: 2)Salinity mediated inhibition of seed germination and seedling emergence are the main problems in saline areas. An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of four different concentrations (10-5, 10-7, 10-9 and 10-11 M) of pre-soaked 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) on the germination traits associated with seedling emergence in Vigna Mungo (L). Hepper under salt stress. The results revealed that salinity significantly reduced germination traits especially at higher doses of 16 and 20 dsm1. Radical length, plumule length, radical fresh weight, plumule fresh weight, germination percentage, seedling length, seedling fresh weight and the seed vigour index also decreased with increasing salinity but seeds primed with 24-EBL alleviated the effect of salinity. Under both stressed and non-stressed conditions, 10-5M 24-EBL was found to be most significant, while 10-11 M 24- EBL was least significant. Vigna Mungo, seed priming, salt stress, 24-epibrassinolide, germination traits
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Abstract (Viewed: 1)Light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) control light-dependent energy transfer in photosystem II(PSII). In order to find out if defective LHCs affect plant growth, light-related parameters were compared between a chlorinal-1 mutant (ch1-1; defective LHCs) and wild-type (WT) plants of Arabidopsis thaliana. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of LHCs on light-related parameters on the growth of Arabidopsis plants. A JUNIORPAM fluorometer was used to measure the parameters such as coefficients of photochemical fluorescence quenching (qp and ql); parameters of non-photochemical quenching (qn and NPQ), the yield of non-regulated energy dissipation of PSII [Y(NO)], the value of the efficient quantum yield of PSII {Y(II)}, and yield of regulated energy dissipation of PSII {Y(NPQ)}. The ch1-1 mutant showed similar coefficient of photochemical quenching to the WT plants. On the other hand, a non-photochemical quenching, an efficient quantum yield of PSII, and yield of regulated energy dissipation of PSII significantly declined in ch1-1 mutant compared with the WT plants. The ch1-1 mutant plants exhibited the value of decreased growth and smaller size of leaf compared with that of WT plants. The percentage of the area, length and width of the leaf of the mutant declined when compared with that of WT plants. These results suggest that defective LHCs regulated growth through affecting light-related parameters of the ch1-1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana plantsch1-1 mutant, non-photochemical quenching, plant growth, photosystem II, glutathione, light-dependent energy

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