The massive flood in Kelantan in 2014 had a devastating effect on the rural community in particular, their quality of life. In order to assist the community recover from the disaster quickly and effectively, a comprehensive relief plan is vital. This recovery plan would also benefit the local authority as well as government agencies. This article discusses a framework that has been developed for sustainable post-disaster recovery plan through income generating activities.
Economic recovery plan, flood victims, income generating activities, socio-economic well-being
Literature on Continued Professional Development (CPD) suggests that learning could take place in three dimensions, namely formal learning (FL), non-formal learning (NFL) and informal learning (IL). However, there is a big gap in the literature as much of the discussions on CPD focus on FL and NFL, while studies on the IL component are still vague, under-researched and often overlooked. The effects of CPD and professional competency have been extensively studied but those focusing on the relationship between CPD and organisational performance (OP) are somewhat limited. This papers examines the correlation between CPD components and OP. Data was collected via structured questionnaire from 1120 executives from four different sectors of the service-based industry in Malaysia, namely Multi-National Corporations (MNCs), Malaysian Government Linked Corporations (GLCs), Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), and Malaysian Government Agencies (MGAs) that are located in the Klang Valley. The SEM-PLS was used to show the hypothetical relationships. The model tested in this study shows that CPD components account for 34.7% of the variance in OP. Furthermore, 24.6% explains the prediction effect of CPD components on OP. Overall, the proposed model of CPD has relatively good predictive power on OP. The findings provide invaluable insights with regards to developing a new strategic HRD model for excellent OP via CPD activities. This study also fulfils the demand for more empirical research on CPD, knowledge management, competency and OP.
Continued professional development, formal learning, informal learning, non-formal learning, organisational performance, service-based organisation, structural equation modelling
This preliminary research is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of pictogram-based patient information leaflet leaflets among kindergarten students from the rural and the urban areas. Three pre-schools were selected for each area, whereby the target respondents evaluated the suitability of pictograms. The interview was conducted face-to-face and survey data was assessed using Likert scale (1=agree, 2=not sure, and 3=disagree). Chi- Square test was used to analyse data and the significant difference was set at p < 0.05. Three out of 10 questions showed significant differences while six questions presented with no significant differences (p>0.05). It is suggested that the level of understanding between the rural and the urban kindergarten students are quite discriminant towards the pictogram. At the age of six, the major difficulty faced by the students was reading. Findings showed that pictogram pictogram-based patient information leaflets aided the students' understanding of medical instruction.
It is now a trend among the younger generation Malaysians to meet with family and friends over a cup of coffee at cafes. This has led to the mushrooming of many western and local themed cafes in the country. The objective of this research is to measure the frequency of Generation Y patronising cafes in Malaysia. Factors such as the location of the cafe, quality of product, atmosphere, and price are used as variables. Data was analysed using multiple regression to test all relationships in the model. The findings indicate that there is a significant relationship between quality of product and price.
Coffee culture, consumer behaviour, generation Y, Malaysia, revisit intention
A study conducted by Foresight Research reveals that customers are often at the showroom. However, car showroom is often being underutilized and following the old model of dealership. In contrast with other retail industries, car dealerships may have ignored the importance of digital display or signage in a car showroom. Hence, car dealers should consider re-strategising by embracing technology, especially to cater to the new generation's needs for better digital experience. Therefore, this study analyses how digital display in a car showroom influences customer's decision to purchase. Furthermore, the study proposes an emotional-environmental conceptual model based on Mehrabian-Russell environment psychology model and Donald Norman's concept on emotional design. Literature review suggests a significant role of digital displays, namely message content, placement, size and interactivity, in retail businesses. However, there is lack of empirical evidence to support the role digital displays in a car showroom. In the proposed conceptual model, environmental psychology taxonomies, namely stimulus, organism and response, were combined with three levels of user response namely visceral, behavioural and reflective taken from the emotional design model. The model allows car dealers and marketers to create a customer-centric digital display that may induce and influence the customer to purchase. Future research should explore the stimulus domain since it plays an important role in producing an immediate emotional response from the customer.
Car purchase, Digital display, emotional design, environment psychology model, store atmospheric
The main objective of a parole system is to rehabilitate and reintegrate parolees into society. In Malaysia, lack of such community rehabilitation programmes in addition to problems faced by parole officers are a concern. This paper examines the legal and operational predicament faced by the community officers. This paper adopts a qualitative methodology, and data is obtained from five case studies of regional prisons in Malaysia as well as from the Prison Act 1995 and library-based sources. Findings show that rehabilitating parolees is demanding on the parole officers especially so when the rehabilitation purpose and specific duties of such officers are not covered by the Prison Act 1995. Additionally, operational difficulties such as lack of sharing of information on the parolees' rehabilitation assessment and report from the prisons, the officers' lack of expertise and heavy workloads hamper their work.
Challenges, community rehabilitation, parole, parole officers, parolees
This paper aims at examining the implications of the asset forfeiture system in Malaysia on the property owners and third party in relation to its 2001 anti-money-laundering legislation. This is a qualitative research in which primary data is obtained from the semi-structured interviews with law enforcement personnel, which is triangulated with the data from Bank Negara. The source of secondary data is the 2001 Anti-Money Laundering Act and relevant literature. Preliminary findings showed the asset forfeiture system not only led to legal ramifications but also economic and financial ones for the law enforcement and property owners and the third party.
Forfeiture, human rights, implications, money laundering, third party
This article examines the usage of Rasch Wright map in evaluating students' conceptual understanding of electricity. A questionnaire, Parallel Circuit Conceptual Understanding Test (PCCUT), was developed for this purpose. The 34 items PCCUT was administered to 102 local engineering, university students. The item reliability is very good at +0.97. Findings showed the students experienced difficulties in diagnosing current, voltage and resistance when presented with a circuit involving the removal of a resistance or the addition of a battery. Additionally, they had problems in identifying parallel circuits in a combined arrangement. On the other hand, majority of them had no difficulty in recognising individual series and parallel circuit as well as circuit connections. Thus, it can be said that the Wright map was very useful in assessing the students' conceptual understanding of electricity.
The objective of this study is to examine the impact of BASO Model-Based Strategic Planning Training (as an independent variable) and Training Follow up Sessions (as a mediating variable) on organisational performance of Rural Community Mosque. This research also examined the effect of transformational leadership as a moderating factor on mosque organisational effectiveness. This study found that mosque leaders were able to produce a comprehensive BASO model-based documented strategic intentions for all four sample mosques. The present study also evaluated s post test results six months later of the selected mosques' short term action plans. Empirical data showed technical consultancy, peer review meetings and management support are mediating factors of mosque organisational effectiveness. Therefore, this BASO model-based strategic planning training supported by training follow up sessions is reliable and can be applied to other rural mosques within and without Malaysia.
Organisational effectiveness, strategic planning training, training follow up, transformational leadership
This study explores factors contributing to academic success of 382 full time diploma students at Faculty of Business Management in a public university in Sarawak. The study lasted eight semesters (four years) from June 2012 until April 2016. The instruments comprised questionnaire, analysis of final examination results and detailed information from student registration database. Pearson bivariate correlational analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between students' CGPA and their fathers' monthly salary (p<0.01) and their mothers' monthly salary (p<0.05). However, there was no significant relationship between students' CGPA and number of siblings in the family. Findings indicated females outperformed their male counterparts in studies. Additionally, there was a significant difference in the mean CGPA among different races of students (p<0.01).
Construction of highways has had negative environmental impacts. Thus, the concept of green highway was introduced in Europe as a part of sustainable development efforts. It has been long known that construction of regular highways leads to greenhouse gas emission from logging activities, cut and fill, excavation and road premix laying. Literature review shows there are several rating systems for energy efficiency; the latter constituting important criteria in the development of green highways. Energy efficiency refers to reduced usage of energy, renewable energy as well as alternative energy as well as the and policies related to energy saving and renewable energy. This paper aims to identify the criteria and sub-criteria of energy efficiency for green highway development in Malaysia. These criteria are obtained from available rating systems and from literature. Data was obtained through survey questionnaire method. The LATAR Highway, one of the main concession company for highway development in Malaysia, was the respondent. This study reported five criteria of energy efficiency: technology and design, renewal energy, policy and plan, utilising solar energy, and reduce usage.
Criteria and sub-criteria, energy efficiency, green highway, rating systems
Rapid development and illegal logging activities resulting in landslides and flash floods have brought the issue of sustainable stormwater management to the fore. Stormwater management is a process of managing stormwater, reducing the runoff water from the highway, treating and diverting it. This is an important aspect of green highway development. This study aims to identify the sub-criteria of stormwater management towards developing green highway. Survey method was adopted to determine the significance of stormwater for developing green highway. Data obtained from 142 respondents representing concessionaires and relevant authorities was analysed. Results showed that all the sub-criteria are important to be included in the assessment of green highway.
Assessment, green highway, sub-criteria, stormwater management
Developing a model to map tuberculosis (TB) cases in Malaysia for boosting early detection is vital. A knowledge-driven geographical information system (GIS) modelling is an alternative approach developed for assessing potential risk areas of TB at Section 17, Shah Alam, Selangor. It is a weight-rating score model and spatial multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method for producing a ranked map based on the index values and risk indicators with a five-score scale. Results showed 34.85% of the study areas are potential TB high risk zones, ranging from medium to very high risk. This is consistent with the findings obtained from overlay comparison with the current cases in 2015.The TB risk map and validation indicated a reasonable match with areas considered as potential TB risk areas, particularly in urban and crowded environments. Thus, a GIS-based MCDM technique can be applied in the national TB screening and monitoring programme.
Since 2004, legal practitioners in Malaysia are regarded as reporting institutions under the Anti-Money Laundering (AML) regime, with several statutory obligations imposed upon them involving record-keeping, customer due diligence, reporting suspicious transactions and implementing the compliance programme within their legal firms. However, official reports indicate that since then, the lawyers' compliance with such duties is rather dismal. It is within this context that this paper seeks to examine their rationale not conforming to their statutory obligations. This paper adopts a qualitative approach. Primary data is obtained from seven case studies of legal firms in the country, which is triangulated with t data from the Central Bank and the Bar Council. Preliminary findings suggest that apart from legal professional privilege and assurance of client confidentiality, business rationality, and the cost-benefit analysis significantly contribute to the unwillingness of lawyers to comply with their AML obligations.
This study was conducted to examine assignment and feedback practices of students in a B. Ed TESL programme. It also identified strategies to enhance the implementation of formative assessment in higher education. Questionnaires and interview questions were used to collect data. The study indicated a moderate level of assignment and utilisation of feedback practices by B. ED TESL students. Three important strategies that have been identified were "giving constructive feedback", "improving the conduct of assignment practices" and "improving the utilisation of feedback". The findings imply that there is a need to further improve assessment strategies which would assist lecturers to plan and conduct assessments to cater to the needs of students.
The study aims to understand the thermal performance of a double skin envelope system in a test cell by configuring a module that has thermal stability with little indoor temperature variations. A rooftop observation deck and laboratory was installed at the "J" Building of the Postgraduate Unit, National Autonomous University of Mexico campus, UNAM (19°18'33.59" N, 99°11'5.73" W). This platform was designed to test materials and construction systems under the Mexico City microclimate, which consists of two full-scale testing modules. Each cubic module measures 3m x 3m x 3m. All of its facades have several layers of insulation. Indoor and outdoor parameters such as thermal, lighting, acoustic and air quality were measured during the experiment. The study aimed to achieve indoor thermal stability, benchmarked to be close to zero during the 24-hour thermal gradient. Findings showed that during warmer months, between May 19 and June 21, 2016, the envelope played an important role in decreasing the indoor air temperature by 7°C. The diurnal thermal gradient was 3.87°C.
This paper compares and discusses six most important reference models and frameworks (SCOR, GSCF, VRM, CPFR, ISA95, SAP) in the domain of Supply Chain Management (SCM) to support different stages of supply chain information system. The results show that GSCF is a comprehensive SCM framework that facilitates identification of business and process areas as well as key activities in supply chain processes. Moreover, GSCF includes all types of business functions in association with the main supply chain processes, such as finance, marketing and R&D. The GSCF focuses on the relationship between suppliers and customers, addresses the inter- and intra-organisation processes in SCM transparently and efficiently. The purpose of this paper is to synthesise the supply chain processes based on the GSCF framework. A description of essential sub-processes and activities, included in GSCF, is also presented.
Global Supply Chain Forum (GSCF), supply chain information system, supply chain process, reference model
The objectives of this research are to examine the: (i) direct effects of perceived critical mass, consumer confidence, and search cost on behavioural intention towards the consumption of eco-labelled products; (ii) direct effects of perceived critical mass and beliefs on consumer confidence towards eco-labelled products; and (iii) examine the indirect effects of perceived critical mass on behavioural intention towards the consumption of eco-labelled products, mediated by consumer confidence. It also studies the determinants of behavioural intention towards the consumption of eco-labelled products and clarifies the role of consumer confidence as a mediating factor influencing behavioural intention towards the consumption of eco-labelled products. This research adopted a cross-sectional survey method of 300 individuals whereby the data was used to test a research model using Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling. Findings indicated that consumer confidence and search cost have a direct effect on behavioural intention towards the consumption of eco-labelled products. In addition, consumer confidence is explained by beliefs and perceived critical mass.
This study, using Sharia Compliance Medical Destination Behaviour (SCoM-DB) model, aims to assess the psychological factors that influence the tourist's selection of sharia compliant medical destination. It further attempts to identify linkages between religiosity towards attitude and destination image towards the subjective norm. A survey questionnaire method using judgmental sampling technique was adopted. Data A total of 105 respondents were recruited for this purpose and data obtained was used to test the relationship using partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Findings revealed that attitude and perceived behavioural control have a significant influence on destination choice whereby the latter (perceived behavioural control) proved to be the strongest contributing factor. Meanwhile, subjective norm is found to have an insignificant effect on destination intention behaviour. The significant relationship between religiosity towards attitude and destination image was also noted.
Destination intention behaviour, intention, medical tourism, sharia compliance, Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)
Drawing upon the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R-) behavioural model, this paper proposes a theoretical framework that explores how this seminal theory holds across with new constructs, namely hedonic shopping value and emotional attachment. Additionally, it attempts to examine the correlation between store environment, in-store experience and the approach behaviour within the shoppers' context of people with disability (PWD). Using a quota sampling approach, a total of 300 guided self-administered survey questionnaires were distributed to target respondents but only 151 returned questionnaires were usable and subsequently run for data analysis through structural equation modelling technique. The findings revealed that emotional attachment significantly influenced shoppers' approach behaviour followed by in-store experience. Meanwhile, hedonic shopping value indicated insignificant effect on approach behaviour and significant relationship between store environment and in-store experience of PWD consumers.
Approach behaviour, emotional attachment, in-store experience, people with disability (PWD) consumers, stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) model
This study is on the ownership structure of companies in Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE) aims at strengthening corporate governance. The authors investigate the relationship between ownership structure and financial restatement of listed companies for the period from 2005 to 2013. Using five types of ownership, managerial, government, institutional, family and foreign ownership, findings reveal that financial restatement is negatively and significantly associated with managerial ownership and foreign ownership.
A new taxation system – Goods and Services Tax (GST) has been introduced by the Malaysian government in order to diversify its revenue base. The Royal Malaysian Custom Department (RMCD) which is appointed to collect this revenue is strengthening its capacity. This paper studies the relationship between competency and governance towards GST readiness among 45 owners of a single brand petrol stations in Malaysia. The Theory of Organisational Readiness for Change along with a regression analysis suggested competency and governance of the petrol station owners had a positive significant relationship towards GST readiness.
Awareness, competency, Goods and Services Tax, governance practice, readiness
The rapid increase in the number of multi-storey residential buildings has raised concerns on the provision of escape route design. Statistics from the Fire and Rescue Department Malaysia showed a high number of casualties involved elderlies when there is a fire. This paper studies expert opinions on the suitability of escape route design for elderlies in public multi-storey residential buildings based on the Uniform Building By-Law (UBBL) 1984 specifications. The result showed enhancing the escape route design suited for the elderly is needed arising from the slow walking speed of the elderlies which can cause delays in the evacuation process. The majority of experts agreed that the escape route design is most important to provide safe evacuation process followed with occupant physiological and psychological characteristics.
This study examines the character of a board (i.e., its size, independence, director's tenure, gender diversity, competence, ethnicity, status, age and position of its founder) on the financial restatement of Malaysian Public Listed Companies (PLCs). The study found board size, multiple directorship, political connections and position of the founder has a significant relationship with financial restatement. The results support the findings of the Resource Dependence Theory and the Agency Theory.
An evaluation of M-REITs utilizing the Sharpe, Treynor and Jensen measures was conducted from 2007 to 2015 to investigate the risk diversification benefits of REITs. The results indicate that all selected M-REITs outperform the FBM Property Index. The beta values are less than one, implying that M-REITs are less risky than the market. Low R-squared values, however, suggest that M-REITs are poorly diversified showing the potential for diversification opportunities. A portfolio consisting few different M-REITs may result in better performance. The findings of this research can provide a clearer understanding of REITs performance to portfolio managers and investors.
Using a quantitative approach, this study on micro-enterprises employing confirmation factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM) AMOS version 21.0 tested the moderating effect of geographical location on the relationship between external networking and innovation performance. The study adds to the theoretical and practical knowledge on improving firm performance, specifically micro-enterprises. In addition, the findings will help the SMEsâ€™ Masterplan towards achieving a high nation income by 2020 in line with The New Economic Model.
This study aims to investigate the link between household debt and GDP. By utilising the Toda-Yamamoto non-casuality test, findings of this study reveal that there is a unidirectional causality that runs from the household debt to GDP which is consistent with the findings based on composition of debt. A Johansen cointegration test was also conducted and results confirmed that long run relationship exists with one cointegrating equation found for each model. Findings from this study can be useful for policymakers working on making Malaysia a high-income country by 2020.
Causality, cointegration, consumer debt, GDP, household debt, Malaysia, mortgage debt
Mobile phone utilisation is changing from basic communication features and location-based services (LBS) has become an important feature. In developing countries such as Malaysia, the development and implementation of LBS can be important for the public since an LBS does not only boost individual decision making, but also supports the business functionality depending on its operation policy. We conducted a research to investigate users' expectation and intention to use the LBS. Developing the work based on Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The findings show the roles of effort expectancy and social influence in predicting the intention to use of LBS.
Information system use, intention, location-based service acceptance, location-based services
This study examines social commerce adoption in Malaysia and Nepal. Both nations are in the group of developing countries but information and communication technology levels are quite significantly different. Given the different level of access to ICT we aim to investigate how consumers in these two countries adopt social commerce by focusing on their acceptance of the process quality, communication quality, security and privacy, service quality and continuance. Using the survey method, data was collected from social commerce users in both countries. The results show no significant differences in the scores of communications, service quality and continuance adoption. However, there are significant differences in how they perceive the process quality and security in social commerce.
Factors of social commerce adoption, social commerce adoption, social commerce in Malaysia, social commerce in Nepal
Indoor environmental quality is getting extra attention since most people these days spend most of their time indoors. This initial study aims to examine the association between Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), occupant's satisfaction and productivity in an office building. The survey was conducted in an office building that is Green Building Index (GBI) in the heart of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This office building was awarded the Platinum Provisional Certification by the GBI Association Malaysia. A questionnaire was administrated to 120 occupants working in the rated green office building, where respondents were asked to select their preferences based on a seven-point Likert scale of agreement and satisfaction. Analysis was conducted using PLS-SEM: SMART PLS Version 3.2 to examine the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. Results indicated that there is a significant relationship between the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), occupant's satisfaction and productivity in an office building especially with regards to visual comfort. Results highlighted the importance of the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) for productivity.
Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), Green Building Index (GBI), office building, occupant's satisfaction, productivity
One of the areas of primary concern to maqasid al-Shariah (objectives of Islamic law) is protection and advancement of the five essentials (al-dharuriyyah al-khamsah), namely protection of religion, life, progeny or family, intellect and property. In marriage, Shariah guides Muslims in achieving these maqasid. Additionally, there are obligatory procedures and formalities in Malaysia on couples planning to get married. Such procedures and formalities include attending a premarital course, undergoing HIV screening, registration of marriage and others. Unfortunately, some perceive the decreed rules, procedure and formalities as burdensome leading to illegal solemnisation of marriage through syndicates or by eloping. This research attempts to shed some light on the concept of maqasid al Shariah in marriage and to examine the application of maqasid al-Shariah in preventing illegal marriages among Muslims in Malaysia. A combination of library research and semi structured interview is used to highlight the importance of maqasid al Shariah and loopholes in the current practice. Findings of this research show that the theory of maqasid al-Shariah is extremely relevant in addressing the current challenges of Muslim marriage. The study proposes some recommendations to control illegal marriages in the light of maqasid al-Shariah.
Illegal marriages, Malaysia, maqasid al- Shariah, muslims
Mobile phone was invented to ease communication. However, its usage it is argued has led to addiction. This study aims to explore mobile phone addiction among the generation Y (Gen Y) in Malaysia, by focusing how technology, social network, physiology and psychology become the risk factors. A survey method was employed to gather data from 280 respondents. Factor analysis, reliability test and the structural equation modelling were performed. The results show internal consistency and the correlations between all the determinants and addiction. The findings also revealed that the physiological factor is the most important risk leading to addiction problems with mobile phone (ß=0.63, p<0.01). However, the technological factor did not predict for the mobile phone addiction (ß=-0.008, p>0.05).
Gen Y Social network in Malaysia, mobile phones addiction, physiological, psychosocial, risk factors of mobile phone addiction
This study analyses the commemorative of national monument, Tugu Negara, using visual semiotics approach in interpreting the potential meaning of gesture and symbols. Visual semiotics studies have focused on factors from outside the 'text', which includes the implicit meanings of each feature of a particular monument. The analysis primarily utilized O'Toole's framework (1994, 2011) for exploring national monument and accounting insights on how the monument represents several meanings by analysing its features. This framework offers a systematic technique for examining the monument in terms of its constituent components in a hierarchical order that is Work, Figure and Member. O'Toole provided three communicative functions of language of monuments inspired from Halliday's Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) theory which are modal function, representational function and compositional function. This study found that Tugu Negara as a war monument of Malaysia, symbolizes leadership, unity, solidarity, victory, enthusiasm, strength, bravery, sacrifice and misery. By the same token, this war monument also comprises a meaning of violence and defeat.
Meaning, language of war monument, Tugu Negara, visual semiotics
Nowadays, "thinking about thinking" skills is essential in 21stcentury education. Preliminary studies demonstrated that students' thinking skills will produce significant results when it is done in collaboration with colleagues. Working in a collaborative environment typically involves processes of evidence and argumentation. Argumentation refers to a claim supported by convincing evidence of extensive and comprehensive understanding of various aspects of an issue. In social collaborative argumentation, knowledge is constructed and shared among peers and the property of a single individual. The challenge is to ensure that argumentative knowledge construction process in social collaborative learning environment improves students' thinking skills. The aim of this paper is to analyse the process involved in argumentative knowledge construction and identifying the process in social collaborative learning environment that contributes towards higher order thinking skills among students. Seventeen students from the Computer Science program participated in the study were randomly divided into 3 groups of four and 1 group of five. This study used mixed method research design concerning the pre-experimental research design that involved type one-group pre-test and post-test design. Data was obtained from performance test and log data files from the social collaborative learning environment. Results showed that argumentative knowledge construction process in social collaborative learning environment could lead students towards higher order thinking skills.
Argumentative knowledge construction, CSCL, higher order thinking skills, social collaborative learning environment
Developments in information technology have implications for education in engineering disciplines. Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) is a means of providing education without incurring high costs. This article is on the design and implementation of UTM-MOOC Highway Engineering course. It hopes to provide useful information on flexible education in UTM that is in line with New Academia Learning Innovation (NALI) framework.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate a Bachelor's degree (AB programme) from a faculty in AA University, a public university in Malaysia utilising Tyler's evaluation model. A mixed research method was used to collect data from lecturers and students through modified CEQ questionnaires and semi structured interviews for lecturers and documents analysis (curriculum and program objectives). Data was gathered from 124 students/trainees and 7 lecturers interviewed. The findings revealed that the AB programme has broad programme objectives, a comprehensive curriculum, and influences positively students' employability. The findings indicate educators and industry should focus on enhancing soft skills in their learning programmes.
Pathological Smartphone Use (PSU) is an emerging phenomenon that needs to be understood. Although there are extensive studies in Pathological Internet Use (PIU) empirical research appears to be still insufficient. It is important to note that Media System Dependency (MSD) Theory assumed that social system and media system as the factors to explain Pathological Internet Use (PIU).The main objective of this research is to extend the MSD Theory with a new construct called personality system and examine its effect on PSU. In this study, the target respondents are the Millennial cohort who are born between 1981 and 1996, often early adopters of new technologies as well as extensive users of the Smartphone. The preliminary phase of the research uses a qualitative approach the gain observable facts which is followed by quantitative data analysis aimed at testing the plausibility of the proposed model among urban Millennial (age 20 - 35 years old). The research introduced an integrative MSD model and it is suggested personality is the main factor behind smartphone pathology phenomenon.
Integrative Media Dependency Theory, smartphone pathology
The bridge between teaching and learning is different for each student, hence an assessment method is needed to gauge understanding. For Engineering Education, the assessment must be designed based on the Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC) requirements, which fulfills the Outcome-based education (OBE) learning approach. Rasch Model offers an approach that provides empirical evidence on each student's true ability with respect to the difficulty of the final examination questions. This paper explores the wonders of Rasch Model to assess the students' performance in the final examination, as well as the validity of the assessment instrument for a core course in Mechanical Engineering.
Assessment, engineering education, mechanical engineering, OBE measurement, Rasch Measurement Model